Thursday, March 27, 2014



Above: Dying lake

Above: Dead lake 

Above:  One of the most ancient inhabited and holy spots of India-- the glorious Pushkar lake of Rajasthan 

Above: Pushkar lake being desilted in 2009, in a MINDLESS manner , virtually killing it.  

Obviously we cant give a gold medal to whoever destroyed a blue water lake , existing since hoary antiquity..  

The person who can revive this lake to its pristine glory will get MOKSHA -- all he has to do is to read and understand this post , penned by a perceptive man . 

Pushkar lake has a vital role in India becoming a slave nation for 800 years.

The sufi followers of Kwajah Moinuddin Chisti had poisoned this lake , causing the horses , camels and elephants of King Prithviraj Chauhan’s army  to fall sick ,  before the war in 1192 AD (  Second Battle of Tarain ) with Muslim invader Shahabuddin Mohammed Ghori.

Punch into Google search-


This lake has never reached its original pristine glory after this incident.

Above : "KILLED Pushkar lake"  -- by man's ignorance 



As per our puranas , Pushkar Lake is appeared when Lord Brahma dropped a lotus in the middle of the Thar Desert.  His blessing on the land caused the Lake to form.  

This holy lake is a place of pilgrimage for Hindus.  

A dip in the cool blue water of the lake cleansed human beings of sin and disease. All this is now history.

Two decades ago my Chemical tanker carried white kaolin clay slurry from Savannah USA to Vancouver, Nanaimo Island  , Canada.   This liquefied clay ( can be pumped ) is used to make expensive porcelain crockery and glazed white paper.

Punch into Google search-

After discharge of clay slurry we have to clean our tanks and then berth at Vancouver and backload Mono Ethylene Glycol ( Fibre grade ) , one of the cleanest cargoes on chemical tankers, where more cleanliness is requires than white Bacardi rum.

Below : Pushkar lake just before de-silting

Below : Pushkar lake one year after de-silting 

The ship tank cleaning process to remove white Kaolin clay sediments is very long.  

So we had a Scandinavian supercargo who has a brain wave —  save time by cleaning tanks during clay discharge as the clay slurry tanks emptied out.  The cleaned white coloured fresh water would be taken to the nearest beach , by trucks , where he dug out two large pits using a bulldozer . 

I had warned him that this wont work, as clay colloids with immediately fill up all the sand grain spaces and kill percolation-- in seconds .  

But then you see he wanted to prove that he is right –  it was more of a show of  Viking syndrome -- See I am head and shoulders above the rest.

Both huge sand pits held the water – and ultimately he gave up , after trying for hours to poke holes here and there with long crow bars .The water inside those sand pits would remain there till the sun evaporated it. 

If the pit is covered it is as good as having water in a huge syntax tank we use in our homes to store water – for ever .  

Pushkar lake is in the middle of the sandy Thar desert.  

If lake water has to be contained— the underwater bottom and sides must have a clay lining.

Mind you even now, they can revive the lake –if done in an intelligent manner .  




"Pushkaradhipati Tirthani Gangadhayasaritasthata" means that among spots of pilgrimage Lake Pushkar occupies the highest place , as verily as sacred river Ganga occupies the place among rivers. 

The significance of Pushkar has been mentioned both in the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

There are 400 temples in Pushkar and the most important amongst them are dedicated to Lord Lord Brahma, Goddess Savitri and Varaha avatar.  

The lake, elliptical in shape, is encircled by 52 ghats . The important ghats are Varaha Ghat and Brahma Ghat . The Varah Ghat is the most popular because it is believed that Lord Vishnu once appeared here in the form of a varaha (boar). 

Punch into google search-


It is on this ghat that the crowds gather on the eve of Kartik Purnima to pay homage to the lake.

As per our scriptures a demon called Vajra Nabha, living in Pushkar, had killed the children of Brahma and in revenge Brahma killed him with a lotus stalk. 

To commemorate this joyous event, devotees for thousands of years ,  set afloat large leaves bearing little delicate clay lamps surrounded by fresh flowers.  

Later modern rationalists and environmentalists banned this age old practice quoting superstition, thus depriving the lake of its precious input of bottom and side clay lining .  

This is where the problems began.

Desilting removed the impervious underwater clay lining ( built over thousand of years by clay offered by devotees ) resulting in heavy percolation and  seepage losses --and now the lake can never hold water ..

By mechanical churning you are basically doing DEagglomeration or DEflocculation.   The clay will NOT get sedimented because the colloids are stabilized by static electricity.   All the particles have a mutual repulsion , and thus the dispersion remains stable.

When you put egg whites and vegetable oil and beat them in a mixer, you get mayonnaise— it remains so because of electric charges, which keep colloids apart.  In milk factories they all milk power and use a homogenizer to thicken the milk ( without telling anybody PSSSST )  .

When colloids combine they flocculate to form clumps and settle down.  

Cavitation nozzles , where the imploding air bubbles will create 2000 bars of homogenization effect lies in my vision for the future .

First do a small experiment on your sandy beach or a sand pit. 

Take a lump of clay.   Put it in a bucket and churn it up into a COLLOIDAL SLURRY using a mechanical mixer or homogeniser. 

Now dig a hole in the sand enough to hold 10 litres . Pour the clay slurry in . 

See for yourself .  Once the percolation has stopped scoop out the stagnant muddy water in the hole. Now pour clean water. 

See, you have a small lake for yourself. The water will remain there .

In the case of Pushkar lake they have to identify the underwater fresh water springs.  Just leave those areas clear.  Those water spring ingress areas will be WET in the dry lake .

Water charging of lake can be done in the rainy season by building up ground water level all around the lake, it is so simple.

I will describe that in greater detail , as the post gets longer.

If you do NOT want to remove the muddy water and introduce clean water (as you do NOT have water to waste )--  all you have to do is to add some alum to cause agglomeration and sedimentation--the opposite effect of homogenisation .  All the clay colloids will clump together ( flocculation ) and sink to the bottom giving crystal clear water.

Ganapati Visarjan was banned in Pushkar lake to prevent water pollution by rationalists . 


Ashapura has extensive reserves of both types of Sodium & Calcium based bentonite in Kutch, Gujarat, India—and we export it from Mundra port at throw away prices. 

This Multani mitti ( fuller’s earth ) clay has unlimited uses as per our 6000 year Ayurveda.  The white man has now patented all this,  and the name itself is patented to Fort Benton, America.



Aelius Galenus ( Galen of Pergamon) , son of a wealthy Greek Nicon came to Kerala via Egypt at the age of 19, after the death of his father .   

He visited the Alexandria library containing books on 6000 year old Ayurveda , and he was familiar with the works of Hippocrates, whose grandfather had Ayurvedic texts ( given by Pythagoras who studied in India) .
Galen studied botany, anatomy and surgery of Sustruta .  Study of human anatomy using cadavers was baned in Greece.   

Galen took back with him, knowledge of edible medicinal clay, which has a strong negative electrical attraction , aggressively searching for  positively charged toxic particles  -- a  magnet for free radicals and toxic heavy metals.

But let me tell you that Ganapati idols are to me made of Bentonite clay with biodegradable decorations, and organic paints , using NIL non-biodegradable plastic .  

Below: This BENTONITE clay from the idol gives the lake life 

This is NOT a superstition, by any stretch of our imagination.

This annual surcharge of good quality clay is so very important for sustaining the lake level and also the quality of the water.

A colloid is a very small, finely divided solids (particles that do not dissolve) that remain dispersed in a liquid for a long time due to their small size and electrical charge. These particles have negligible settling velocity because their small mass has a low gravitational force compared to surface frictional forces.  The particles of a colloid selectively absorb ions and acquire an electric charge. All of the particles of a given colloid take on the same charge (either positive or negative) and thus are repelled by one another.  Negatively charged particles repel each other due to electricity.  Most particles dissolved in water have a negative charge, so they tend to repel each other.  

The purpose of most coagulant chemicals is to neutralize the negative charges on the turbidity particles to prevent those particles from repelling each other.  The amount of coagulant which should be added to the water will depend on the zeta potential , a measurement of the magnitude of electrical charge surrounding the colloidal particles.  You can think of the zeta potential as the amount of repulsive force which keeps the particles in the water.  If the zeta potential is large, then more coagulants will be needed.   Coagulants tend to be positively charged.  Due to their positive charge, they are attracted to the negative particles in the water. 

The combination of positive and negative charge results in a neutral , or lack, of charge.  As a result, the particles no longer repel each other. Neutrally charged particles attract due to van der Waal's forces . Once the particles in water are not repelling each other, van der Waal's forces make the particles drift toward each other and join together into a group.  When enough particles have joined together, they become floc and will settle out of the water.

Modified bentonite clay—Phoslock- is applied to the water surface as a granule or a slurry to bond with free reactive phosphorus.  The lanthanum adsorbs phosphate molecules to form a mineral called rhabdophane, which is quite stable.  Any unreacted lanthanum remains imbedded in the bentonite granules, which settle to the bottom of the pond, that will continue to bond and sequester phosphorus as it releases from the sediments. 

Phoslock is the commercial name for a bentonite clay in which the sodium and/or calcium ions are exchanged for lanthanum.  The addition of this element allows it to bind with phosphates to form rhabdophane (LaPO4.nH2O) and thereby remove them from the water column.   It is used in lake restoration projects as a tool to manage eutrophication and manage algal blooms (specifically cyanobacteria or blue green algae) by reducing phosphorus, one of the major contributing factors to algal growth.

Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.  Sodium bentonite expands when wet, absorbing as much as several times its dry mass in water.  Because of its excellent colloidal properties,it acts as a sealant, since it provides a self-sealing, low permeability barrier. It is used to line the base of garbage landfills.


The property of swelling on contact with water makes sodium bentonite useful as a sealant, since it provides a self-sealing, low permeability barrier. It is used to line the base of landfills to prevent migration of leachate, for quarantining metal pollutants of groundwater, and for the sealing of subsurface disposal systems for spent nuclear fuel.

Sodium bentonite is most commonly used for large castings that use dry molds.   The ionic surface of bentonite has a useful property in making a sticky coating on sand grains.  When a small proportion of finely ground bentonite clay is added to hard sand and wetted, the clay binds the sand particles into a moldable aggregate known as green sand used for making molds in sand casting.

Bentonite slurry walls are used in construction, where the slurry wall is a trench filled with a thick colloidal mixture of Bentonite and water.    A trench that would collapse due to the hydraulic pressure in the surrounding soil does not collapse as the slurry balances the hydraulic pressure.

Ashapura is India’s largest and one of the top five players in BentoniteAshapura Minechem is the flagship company of the Ashapura Group and well known as India’s largest mine owner & exporter of bentonite.   It is among the top five global producers of bentonite with over 60 million tons of quality sodium aand calcium bentonite reserves across  India.  

Bentonite clay (also called fuller's clay/ Multani mitti ) are the most useful of all clays and is a precious resource which must NOT be squandered away in exports..  As per 6000 year old Ayurveda , it has absorbing properties and can be used as an exfoliant as it draws out impurities from the skin . 

Below : Naga Sadhus at Kumbh Mela - dressed only in Multani mitti.

The multiple properties of bentonite namely hydration, swelling, water absorption, viscosity, thixotropy make it a multi-application product for diverse industries.    Primarily two varieties of bentonite are available - sodium bentonite (high swelling, gelling and thermal durability) and calcium bentonite (more commonly available worldwide but with less swelling).

Ashapura has extensive reserves of both types of Sodium & Calcium based bentonite in Kutch, Gujarat, India.

Agnihotra rituals used to be done by the side of the Pushkar lake, considering Lord Brahma aslo did the same ritual in the hoary past, by the side of the lake he created .  Again, this homam is NOT a superstition done by PAGAN Hindus..

Punch into Google search-


All those who think that one or two spoons of vegetable oil in each of the floating earth lamps will pollute the lake – I must tell them , this vegetable oil is good for the lake.

If there is fish in the lake, it is food for them which will help them to become healthy and fat.  An oil like coconut oil will help them to improve their nutrition value for humans .  

If the lake does NOT have any fish , it will help to swamp and kill mosquito larvae, which cause dengue , malaria and chikungunya.

Do I hear someone , some ignoramus, crying that oil pollutes water?

Sorry, I have been a Captain at sea for 30 years .  All international and local laws prohibit mineral oils ( Annex 1 oils—kerosene, diesel, petrol etc )  from being discharged into the water.   Vegetable oil is Annex 2 oil and there are NO such restrictions .

Do you want to hear a shocker?


It was due to the persistent efforts of a certain Captain Ajit Vadakayil ( via European PSC inspectors / USCG ) that vegetable oils got reclassified based on their melting point, discharge temperature  and viscosity.

This happened as I saw sea gulls getting drowned in front of my eyes as their wings got coated in frozen palm oil in cold North seas .

I do NOT like to boast about such things – but just in case some skeptics ( who do NOT know who Capt Ajit Vadakayyil  is ) , still scoff, let them read the post below about global warming.

Punch into Google search-

You really have zilch idea how much this blogsite has helped the planet, India and Hindusim.

And to hell with all those science books we had in school ( made by Macaulay ) that we must pour kerosene in lakes to prevent mosquitoes breeding. This kills the lake.  

Kerosene causes intense pain and death to non-poisonous and harmless water snakes – and this is BAD KARMA.

Even if the clay Ganesha idol is immersed in the sea , the clay lining along the coast. prevents SALT WATER ingress inland when the fresh water ground table level is low in hot summer season.  

Such an ingress from the sea, causes AQUIFERS to get contaminated -- coastal lakes and borewells to go saline and dead..

Building a dam to hold water is a STUPID way.  The enormous water body ( artificial lake ) causes massive loss of water due to evaporation. 

The bright thing to do is to store the water underground. This underground bank of water ( where there is NO evaporation or flow to the sea ) is called an AQUIFER.

Dams have to be designed by intelligent people —NOT the Pushkar Syndrome types, who have zilch idea what a ground water aquifer means .

Causing a large water surface for evaporation loss is NOT a bright thing to do.  

India is on course to overtake USA as world’s no 1 superpower in 20 years , provided we have a good desh bhakt ruler like Narendra Modi.

We can stumble and fall flat on our faces ONLY at two hurdles —

AAA— a  full blown war with China.  

This will be avoided by Modi who will secure a WIN-WIN border agreement with China.  After this we need NOT fight anymore.

BBB--- countries jealous of India’s progress , sabotage our monsoons.   

If Indian monsoons fail for 2 consecutive years , India will be in a very bad state.  

This again MUST be checkmated by us NOW--  by conserving our ground water resources, in underground aquifers.

This is where the video ( about HAARP and Tesla technology ) below becomes important. 

So watch the video below .

Having been at sea for 40 years I do understand weather patterns.

It is very simple to convert the ionosphere layer boundary into a LENS ( using HAARP ) and do weather modification.

India must NOT fall in the trap of giving 100% FDI in the telecommunication sector. 

We have to safe guard our honey bees.  20 years ago we used to have HONEY bee hives inside our home compound.  Today they no longer exist.  

The greatest value of bees is NOT in the honey, but in the service they do as pollinators.  In USA it has been quantified that 88% of the crops are dependent on the honey bee.

Cell phone tower radiation disorient worker bees causing them to get lost on the way back to the hive.

 India  has witnessed a sharp decline in the number of honeybees and wild pollinators, which would adversely affect the crops and food security.   The radiation max limits of Indian cell towers are greatly in excess of the ones in western countries.

Mananchira lake of Calicut ( my hometown) existed since antiquity-- I am proud of my beautiful hometown , which has better literacy , culture and social indicators than European and Scandinavian countries..   

It was stone stepped and converted into a bathing pool for the palace women by the Calicut King Zamorin Mana Vikrama, in the 13th century. 

Today this lake provided drinking water to Calicut and the water is clear and blue.

What has this thriving lake plumb in the heart of the city , NOT been run over by green algae and water hyacinths as is usual in almost all dying  lakes and temple ponds of India ?

One thing is that we have taken care of the phosphates which ingress the lake.  

Since the past 4 years detergent multinationals have been selling phosphate free laundry detergents in USA and western countries. But hey, they do NOT care to do the same in India though we pay the same money.

For example in Bangalore all the lakes have poor water quality and looks green due to heavy  algae growth.  Every house has a washing machine using phosphate detergents.

Algae prevent light reaching through the water and use up oxygen, causing a decline in the health of the water environment.

Phosphate is added to laundry detergents to soften the water and to hold dirt in the wash water.  There are many alternatives  to phosphate , like zeolite, which is environmentally friendly and does not contribute to nutrient pollution. 

Phosphorus is a common constituent of agricultural fertilizers, manure used in gardens , lawns and golf courses.  Phosphorus also exists in animal feces--say-- too many stray dogs . Phosphorus tends to attach to soil particles and, thus, moves into surface-water bodies from runoff. It can can also migrate with ground-water flows.

Phosphorus is an essential element for plant life, but when there is too much of it in water, it can speed up eutrophication (a reduction in dissolved oxygen in water bodies caused by an increase of mineral and organic nutrients) of lakes.  Phosphate is does not degrade naturally in surface water, except with the use of water treatments .

As the algae dies, it consequently consumes oxygen in the water, depleting the resource for other marine life.  India must aim to be have phosphate free laundry detergents by 2016.  Heavy fines must be slapped for non-complaince, especially on Zionist fortune 500 multinationals who sell phosphate free detergents in western countries , but NOT in India..

Deoxygenation of water, especially after collapse of algal blooms, usually result in fish kills.  Loss of recreational use of water due to slime, weed infestation, and noxious odour from decaying algae. Dense weeds can also aggravate mosquito and other insect problems. Low suspended algae can produce low infiltration rates because they are filtered out on the basin bottom, where they clog the soil.  

A big segment of the slum dwellers do NOT have proper toilet facilities. Yet we gave 10 billion Euros to Italy –nay—Euro zone as charity so that they can drink premium wines. Sewage effluent can contain 5 to 50 mg/l phosphorus, depending on diet and water use of the local population.  

In calcareous soils and at alkaline pH, phosphate precipitates with calcium to form calcium phosphate. In acid soils, phosphate reacts with iron and aluminium oxides in the soil to form insoluble compounds. 

Sometimes, phosphate is initially immobilized by adsorption to the soil and then slowly reverts to insoluble forms, allowing more adsorption of mobile phosphate, etc. In clean sands with about neutral pH, phosphate can be relatively mobile.

Eutrofication is a process by which a water body acquires a high concentration of nutrients and phosphates, which in turn, promote excessive algae growth, which depletes the oxygen content of the water, killing off organisms such as fish.

Mesotrophic lakes have moderate levels of nutrients and algae.

Supertrophic lakes are fertile and saturated in phosphorus and nitrogen, often associated with poor water clarity. Excessive phytoplankton growth can occur in ideal conditions - when there's a calm, hot and sunny period of a few weeks.

Hypertrophic lakes are excessively enriched with nutrients and are subject to devastating algal blooms.  Lakes typically reach this condition due to human activities, such as heavy use of fertilizers in the lake catchment area. Such lakes are of little use to humans and have a poor ecosystem due to decreased dissolved oxygen.  

Hypertrophic lakes are highly fertile and supersaturated in phosphorus and nitrogen. They have excessive phytoplankton growth which contributes to poor water clarity, poor suitability for recreational uses, and restricts the habitat for desirable fish.  Hypertrophic lakes tend to be shallow and suffer from high rates of nutrient loadings from point and non-point sources

How do we measure the trophic state?  Levels of oxygen provide an indirect measure of lake trophic status.

To determine the biological productivity i.e., the water quality of a lake, four parameters need to be measured: total nitrogen, total phosphorus, clarity and chlorophyll . 

Chlorophyll a concentration is used to give an indirect measure of algal concentrations. Chlorophyll a is the pigment present in plants that makes them appear green and allows them to obtain energy from the sun (photosynthesis).

These parameters reflect the dynamics of the annual lake cycle. Combined they form the Trophic Level Index (TLI). The higher the TLI, the lower the water quality.

High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water most often come from agricultural runoff and urban detergent laden waste water.

Human-induced eutrophication cause increased rooted aquatic plant growth (stimulated by the increased supply of nutrients as well as the creation of additional shallow growing areas due to the accumulation of sediments, silt and organic matter), and low dissolved oxygen concentrations in all or parts of the lake . 

This is as a result of increased plant respiration and the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria and other microorganisms. This lack of oxygen can kill fish and other aquatic life.

Groundwater is being polluted mainly by nitrates. Nitrates come off urea used in lawn fertilisers. Nitrogen levels in sewage be more than 100 mg/l, depending on in-house water use and diet of the local people.  

Raw sewage has considerable organic nitrogen.  There is a great  need for preventing nitrate pollution of groundwater in the irrigated area due to excess nitrogen application ( artificial fertilisers ) to the crops.

Nitrogen in commercial fertilizer is particularly soluble to facilitate uptake by crops, but this also makes it vulnerable to run-off after heavy rainfall, and to leaching to groundwater. Nitrogen is an important factor in causing eutrophication (oxygen depletion) of water bodies

Nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere. When heated to the temperatures found in steam boilers and internal combustion engines, it can combine with oxygen from the atmosphere to form nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOx).  NOx is the sum of nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide in a given parcel of air. These can dissolve in water, forming weak solutions of nitric and nitrous acids.  

Lightning is the most common natural source of NOx. Overloads of nitrogen can wash downstream to feed algae that monopolize oxygen when they decay, creating fish-fatal “dead zones ” 

Below: Weed cutter can be trawled by a boat.

 Water hyacinth, most of the time is considered to be a weed that is responsible for choking lakes to death. It is an aquatic plant that grows on the surface of the water body, with the shoot system above the water level and the roots developing in the water. 

The shoot system covers the surface of the water body to capture sunlight thereby obstructing the entry of the sunlight into the water, which is required by the algae and other organisms in the water. This leads to a reduction in the growth of algal population. The roots affect the free movement of the aquatic fauna in the water.  Water hyacinth grows profusely in presence of nutrients that are mainly responsible for its growth.

A WORD OF CAUTION - If all the water hyacinth ( because it is a menace ) were removed it would cause an increase in the amount of nutrients resulting in algal blooms, which are already affecting the lake.   

Water hyacinth in a small portion of the lake , is a god given natural aquatic treatment system to uptake HEAVY METALS.  90 % of the metal ( like toxic nickel ) was absorbed in the root system and 10 % in the root and shoot system.  

Lotuses ( India’s national flower ) are good for the lake , as they do NOT run over and swamp the waters like water hyacinths.  Through photosynthesis, aquatic plants convert inorganic material to organic matter and oxygenate the water too.  A lake with lotuses is a healthy lake.

They provide food and cover for aquatic insects, crustaceans, snails, and fish --and prevent overheating of lake water. Nutrients are also captured and utilized by aquatic plants, preventing them from reaching algae in the open portion of a lake.

Do NOT ever think that water hyacinth leaves protect the lake from evaporation. Rather it causes more water loss due to evapotranspiration (loss of water through leaves through transpiration).

Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves.  An element (such as a water hyacinth  ) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator.

Death and decay of water hyacinth vegetation in large masses deteriorates water quality.

Domestic sewage entering the lake contains levels of nitrates and phosphates beyond permissible limits, which promote the growth of algae/water hyacinth in the lake. As the algae/water hyacinth decompose,  it uses lot of available oxygen in the water thereby making it deficient for other aquatic fauna like fish etc. causing the death of these organisms .

What worsens the situation in urban India is the construction of illegal structures and slums-as a part of vote bank politics.  Such slums are usually not connected to the city’s sewage systems. It is therefore important for India to invest in building affordable sewage systems—rather than giving 10 billion euro to Italy—nay—Euro zone so that they can drink better wine..

The lack of oxygen ultimately affects the decomposition of algae also and which simply falls to the bottom of the lake adding to the  high levels of organic matter in the lake bed. Non-decomposition of organic matter, non availability of oxygen,  result in emanation of various gases from the lake bed causing lot of foul smell from the lake. 

If eutrophication is severe, it may create hypoxic conditions in a water body. Hypoxia is characterized by low amount of oxygen dissolved in water bodies. Such a condition has harmful effects on the life of aquatic fauna, resulting in dead zones. 

Phosphorous, primarily in the form of phosphate, is not as soluble as nitrate and is primarily transported by sediment in runoff, often ending up in lakes , rivers and streams.  Ground water is mainly at risk from nitrates, which at excessive concentrations are considered a health risk.  Highly contaminated ground water cannot be used as drinking water.

Once the naturally occurring oxygen in the water is depleted, the algae blooms die, and in their decomposing process, cause further eutrophication. Algae blooms mostly occur in areas with still water.

Like I said before lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock) application can remove phosphorus from water. Algae can be killed by any algecide .  But phosphorus is like sugar in water and has to be locked and removed by any nano technology.. 

Phoslock permanently locks phosphorus into an inert mineral that sinks to the bottom and becomes part of the pond's natural sediments.

Below : The DVAITA VEDANTA TRINITY of Sanatana Dharma

To understand the TRINITY force field of Hinduism –

Punch into Google search-

Where Lord Brahma is the creator, Lord Vishnu is the mediator ( preserver )  and Lord Shiva is the destroyer.  The trinity works in amazing harmony, preserving the cosmos .

These force fields have been personalized in Hinduism . 

Our ancient scriptures and Vedas are all allegorical and coded, and it requires perception to understand the inherent glory ..

A couple of weeks are at the India today conclave I saw the French woman of Bollywood ( a peabrained starlet)  Kalki Koechlin , ridiculing Draupadi and her 5 Pandava husbands ( Mahabharata ) . 

She brims with sarcasm . 

I could NOT manage one husband. I wonder how Draupadi managed five. 

Below: Hum bhi French-  tumhara miah bhi French --achccha hai !

Below:  Hey -- we have a French teacher for Indian  womanhood -- so listen up !! 

She knows what is good for Indian women, honest !  If you laugh and clap while she lisps her bull - you are an intellectual !!.

She wrangled her way into the conclave because of her HUM BHI FRENCH TUMHARA HUSBAND BHI FRENCH connection with heiress of India Today Group, Koel Purie Rinchet , who is married to a Frenchman . 

Below : Arjuna looks down into the shimmering water reflection , and nails the eye of the revolving fish on top --  

-- a supreme test of consciousness ( NOT skill ).  

Only conscious creatures can see themselves in the mirror -- only a couple of animals qualify like elephants, dolphins and bonobos.

Baby Kalki, Draupadi ( Panchali ) is the Kundalini and the 5 husbands are the bottom five human chakras.  

Kalki baby ran down the wife of Muhammad Aisha too.

I must explain this amazing trinity concept for the layman.

At home when we go for a crap and we pull the flush after the job, the feces goes to the septic tank. This concrete tank, has heavy slabs and does NOT allow oxygen and light to enter. Here the bacteria is ANaerobic, which thrives in methane but dies in oxygen.

Now imagine , you remove a concrete slab of this tank allowing oxygen to enter the tank. ANaerobic bacteria will soon start dying ( intelligent action of Lord Shiva ) and it will start stinking.  

But at the same time an intelligent force field of Lord Brahma will start producing aerobic bacteria which thrives in oxygen , but will die in methane.  

How this intelligent morphogenetic transition takes place and its rate is controlled by another intelligent field of Lord Vishnu as the mediator. 

Pretty soon all ANearobic bacteria will be dead and the septic tank will be full of aerobic bacteria in a seamless change over.

On the ship we have a sewage treatment plant.  Here an aerator blower runs 24 hours a day, 365 days in a year.   

Below: Sewage treatment plant with aerobic bacteria.

The bacteria in the sewage tank is totally oxygen dependant .  If we shut down the blower the aerobic bacteria starts dying ( creating a stink ) and slowly ANaerobic bacteria takes over.

Below: Septic tank at home , with ANaerobic bacteria.

So all these stories injected by the white invader in our Hindu scriptures about Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva holding competitions as to who is more powerful — you now know what they are worth , right?


It is like ANaerobic bacteria saying that I am more powerful than aerobic bacteria.


action saying that I am more powerful than reaction


evaporation saying that I am more powerful than condensation


north pole saying that I am more powerful than south pole.

See, when you inject poison into the wisdom of Sanatana Dharma , you must know where and how to inject— or you look like worse than an idiot .

Excessive nitrate (NO3) in drinking water can cause human and animal health problems, particularly for small babies.  The United States Public Health Service has established a specific standard of 10 milligrams of nitrate nitrogen per liter as the maximum concentration safe for human consumption.  The maximum contaminant level for nitrate, as set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is 10 mg/liter, or 10 ppm.  

Excess nitrates decrease the ability of blood to carry vital oxygen through the body. The mouth, hands, and feet of those suffering from the condition may appear blue.  Babies with the syndrome may also have other symptoms, including trouble breathing, as well as vomiting and diarrhea.

In the body nitrates are converted to nitrites. The nitrites react with hemoglobin in the red blood cells to form methemoglobin, affecting the blood’s ability to carry enough oxygen to the cells of the body. Bottle-fed infants less than three months of age are particularly at risk. The hemoglobin of infants is more susceptible and the condition is made worse by gastrointestinal infection.

Nitrate or nitrites in drinking water are associated with cancer in adults. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite in the gut and nitrite reacts with specific food breakdown products (amines) to form highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.  This is a convoluted path to cancer, but is assuming greater importance as nitrate in food and drinking water slowly increases worldwide.

To prevent nitrates in water apply two-thirds to three-fourths of the planned artificial fertilizer nitrogen just before the crop enters a period of rapid growth.  Proper timing ensures maximum daily nitrogen uptake and minimizes the likelihood of unused nitrogen leaching below the plant roots.  

Best is NOT to have any golf courses and lawns nearby the lake. Avoid surface water run off into take, especially during the initial rains.

Utilizing aeration, the nitrification stage utilizes aerobic bacteria to turn Ammonia into Nitrite and then Nitrate.  Nitrogen removal happens in the denitrification stage as bacteria consume the Oxygen from Nitrate turning it into Nitrogen gas that escapes into the atmosphere.

Aerobic bacteria consume oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria consume methane and die when the lake is aerated.   Wastewater treatment plants play it safe by running their blowers full speed 24 hours a day 7 days a week for the aerobic bacteria to survive.

Ammonification is a one-way reaction in which organisms break down amino acids and produce ammonia (NH3).  Nitrification is the process in which ammonia is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate, yielding energy for decomposer organisms. Two groups of microorganisms are involved in nitrification. Nitrosomonas oxidizes ammonia to nitrite and water. Subsequently, Nitrobacter oxidizes the nitrite ions to nitrate.

Anaerobic bacteria in lakes produce a mucus-like layer of slime, or biomat, which create large amounts of nitrate.  The expensive way is to empty the lake to kill all anaerobic bacteria and charge fresh aereated water. 

Bottom aeration systems provide a beneficial and cost effective method of improving both the water quality of your pond and it's overall health.

The most important criteria to consider with a lake is the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water.  Just like us, fish need oxygen to survive.  So how do you know if you have enough oxygen in the lake?  Typically measured in Parts per Million (PPM) you should be aiming for a minimum DO level of between 4 and 5 PPM. So what causes low dissolved oxygen levels?

Excessive amounts of Algae and aquatic plants are the main culprits because they will absorb a lot  of oxygen after nightfall.  An abundance of organic waste i.e High silt levels will cause oxygen levels to be reduced and silt can also release harmful gasses into the water. Finally, having too many fish can also reduce the oxygen levels not only through lack of oxygen per fish but high waste inputs into the water.

Bottom based diffuser system that forces air down to the base of the pond, enabling it to bubble back up may be the better bet. The threat of Stratification is also reduced as sufficient oxygen levels at the foot of the pond are maintained Noxious smells are also reduced and overall water quality is improved. Silt reduction would also benefit from increased oxygen.

The amount of oxygen in the water is an important indicator of overall lake health. In fact, much information can be gathered about a lake by examining just this parameter. Oxygen plays a crucial role in determining the type of organisms that live in a lake. Some fish species, need consistently high oxygen concentrations to survive. 

During the summer months, when water is warm, oxygen can be consumed faster than it can be replenished. Lakes can become "stratified"; the warmer, oxygen-rich upper water laying on top of the cool, more dense, lower-oxygen deeper water.

Such conditions inhibit levels of beneficial bacteria and their breakdown of organics. Bottom muck accumulation increases and excessive nutrients are readily available for plant/algae growth.  This thermal stratification also makes conditions favorable for the production of noxious ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases.

Vertex bottom aeration systems create a vertical current using the rising force of millions of small bubbles to entrain the water column, "turning the lake over" and allowing oxygen to be absorbed at the lake's surface.

By moving the lower-oxygen water up from the bottom and eliminating thermal stratification, oxygen levels throughout the water column are increased. Wide swings in oxygen are stabilized, preventing fish kills. 

Vertex Aeration systems also improve sport fisheries by allowing fish to expand their territory into formerly oxygen-deprived portions of the lake.

Oxygen is easily dissolved in water. In fact, it is so soluble that water can contain a greater percentage of oxygen than the atmosphere.  Because of this phenomenon, oxygen naturally moves (diffuses) from the air into the water.  Aeration of the water surface by winds and waves enhances this diffusion process.  Vertical mixing of the water, aided by winds, distributes the oxygen within the lake. 

In this manner, it becomes available to the lake's community of oxygen-breathing organisms. Water temperature affects the capacity of water to retain dissolved oxygen. Cold water can hold more oxygen than warm water. Therefore, a lake will typically have a higher concentration of dissolved oxygen during winter than summer.

Rich people have their private lawns.  They use pesticides to keep weeds under control.  

These pesticides percolate into ground water and cause kidney , liver , brain diseases and cancer to the people who consume this water.  

These rich people will of course have expensive reverse osmosis plants , with activated carbon filters in their kitchen, and so they do NOT care.  

They play golf where to maintain the grass excessive ground water, urea to keep grass green ,  phosphate fertilisers and dangerous pesticides are used. 

Nobody cares.

Most of the bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that contaminate ground water comes from fecal material from humans and other animals.  Common bacterial contaminants include E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter jejuni.

 It is estimated that more than 620 million people in India still defecate in the open and more than 70 % of Indian households do not treat their drinking water .

Mind you in 300 years flat the white invader robbed us blind and converted India from the riches nation to the poorest on the planet.

These are the same people who are sarcastic with us for being poor and unhygienic.  

Having been at sea for 4 decades I do know how the poor people in white countries survive, their standards of hygiene— how often they take a bath and change their yellow spotted ( at asshole area )  underwear..

Untreated sewage running off into ground water causes water borne diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis , cholera, typhoid etc.

The first rains surface run off must NOT enter the lake . Too much stray dog shit lying around is no good. 

Viruses in sewage effluent include entero- and adeno-viruses. Hepatitis viruses are of special concern.
Soil is an effective filter to remove microorganisms from sewage effluent (except, of course, coarse soils such as sands and gravels, or fractured rock). 

Bacteria are physically strained from the water, whereas the much smaller viruses are usually adsorbed. This adsorption is favored by a low pH, a high salt concentration in the sewage, and high relative concentrations of calcium and magnesium over monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium. Human bacteria and viruses immobilized in the soil do not reproduce, and eventually die. Most bacteria and viruses die in a few weeks to a few months. 

Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water.  The World Health Organization estimates that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene.

Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria, many of which are intestinal parasites, or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. 

Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses. 

Forty five per cent of India's children are stunted and 600,000 children under five die each year, largely because of inadequate water supply and poor sanitation, reads a report by UNICEF and Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).- but does anybody care?  

We are busy discussing Sachin Tendulkar on prime time  TV, right ? -- when only nine and a half countries play cricket on this planet !!

Fecal contamination can reach ground water sources, including drinking water wells, from failed septic systems, leaking sewer lines, and by passing through the soil and large cracks in the ground. Fecal contamination from the surface may also get into a drinking water well along its casing or through cracks if the well is not properly constructed, protected, or maintained.

History shows that civilizations have vanished once water is gone.

India has about 4% of world’s freshwater resources ranking it among the top ten water rich countries..  

Overall, every year, precipitation in the form of rain and snowfall provide over 4000 cu km of freshwater to India, of which 2047 cu km return to oceans.  A small percentage is stored in inland water bodies and groundwater aquifers.

There is more ground water than surface water.   Ground water is less expensive and an economic resource. Ground water is sustainable and reliable source of water supply, as it is relatively less vulnerable to pollution. 

Ground water is usually of high bacteriological purity and is free of pathogenic organisms. It needs little treatment before use and it has no turbidity and colour.  

Ground water is usually universally available.  There is no conveyance losses in ground water based supplies. Ground water has low vulnerability to drought and hence is the key to life in arid and semi-arid regions.

What exactly is an aquifer ?

A rock formation capable of holding and transmitting water through its inter-connected pore spaces (or through joints and fractures) is called an aquifer. Unconfined aquifers are formed by formations which are exposed and pervious at the top surface but impervious at the bottom at some depth.

Thus water entering from the top of such formations percolates downwards till it reaches the impervious level and starts building up a saturated zone within the formation. The water occurring within the weathered zone of a hard rock formation is a typical example of unconfined aquifer. 

Water from unconfined aquifer is essentially tapped through open dug wells. When you dig a borewell and start pulling water out, you are emptying the water in the aquifers which is a finite amount. The process by which water enters into these fissures is called recharge.

The cities of modern India, the concrete jungles, are on the brink of severe water crisis.

The ground water level and volume in cities like Hyderabad, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai along with several other cities of North India is declining at a rapid pace.

The channels to the local aquifers through which the rain water seeped in, have all been sealed. They have become places for public utility, thus depriving the land below the cities of their water.

Aquifer recharge zones have been blocked by mindless construction.

In an aquifer, the water travels through tiny pores of the rocks, the water that comes out of an aquifer is usually clean. Aquifers have natural recharge zones where water enters the rocky layer and they have a natural discharge zone where the water comes out of the rocks and collects as a pool or well.

In between, man can intervene and drill into these rocks and tap into the aquifers. These are the bore wells of today.  We need to look at aquifers which are the source of water to a borewell. After all a borewell , is a hole drilled into the ground to penetrate an aquifer.

It is because of these aquifers and plenty of recharge zones which allowed rain water to seep in, that we had wells, springs and tanks overflowing with water right through the year in India, across all seasons, even in times of failed monsoon

Aquifers have been tapped into indiscriminately with powerful and deep bore wells.  Aquifers are being drained at a rate faster than that at which they are getting recharged. If water is pumped from a well faster than it is replenished, the water table is lowered and the well may go dry.

What is amazing is the ground water that we pump out from the acquifer is not only pure, it is also refreshingly cold. Aquifers are natural filters that trap sediment and other particles (like bacteria) and provide natural purification of the ground water flowing through them.

An aquifer can be contaminated by many things we do near the surface of the earth. Contaminants reach the water table by any natural or manmade pathways, along which water can flow from the surface to the aquifer. Deliberate disposal of waste at point sources such as landfills, septic tanks, injection wells and storm drain wells can have an impact on the quality of ground water in an aquifer.

That is why bore-wells near landfills are all contaminated and dangerous chemicals have leached into them. Aquifer recharge zones are contaminated with chemicals and bacteria which enter the acquifer.

Aquifers which are the main source of clean, ground water have all dried up and the result is water shortage everywhere.  Much of this is happening in cities since there are more people trying to live off the limited number of aquifers under the city.

The cities have literally sucked all the water out of the aquifers. To keep life in the cities going, water from aquifers in nearby areas too have been extracted and supplied to the cities.

Here is an aspect which has been neglected to to lack of intelligence and perception.

Excessive drilling of borewells, along with the use of mechanised pumping has led many parts of the country’s groundwater aquifers to go dry   .  Borewells are draining water deep into the earth. 

The land has become a sponge which sucks rainwater and sends it directly to deep underground beyond the impervious layer . As a result, the surface runoffs have diminished limiting the flow to tanks, tributaries and rivers.

This is the reason that even a perennial rivers are getting depleted.

In such a situation, shallow ground water cannot be recharged. Water directed underground by recharge pits will directly flow into deep underground and will not raise the water table. This has happened in many places where a large number of deep borewells have been sunk.

If the drilling of borewells continues at the current pace, we will soon reach a point when all surface water will be drained into the deep underground and we will be left with no accessible water at all. Dryland agriculture will then die and the land will turn into a desert.

Steps by INTELLIGENT people such as creation of subsurface check dams, plugging the vents (that allow water to flow from a shallow zone to a deeper zone) and recharging aquifers which are not drained to lower levels should be pursued with great urgency.

Most times groundwater gets recharged because of the flow of a river. Now if too many dams are created upstream this will NOT help the downstream areas . If they are close to the seacoast saline water will invade aquifers..

In ancient days our forefathers were wise enough to build percolation tanks for every small area of inhabitation. Typically these were built near temples and at outskirts of the village alongside slopes to catch the rainwater. These percolation tanks kept the aquifers recharged.

These lakes and tanks have existed since time immemorial, much before the cities engulfed them. These water bodies are situated where they are, considering the topography, the gradient of the land.   These lakes were  recharge zones for the aquifers, the purpose for which they originally came to be.

Instead of contributing to the ecology in and around them by aiding ground water recharge, these lakes are polluting the ground water. Various pollutants including nitrates, chromium, lead, manganese and other heavy metals have percolated into the aquifers and have rendered the ground water unfit for human consumption.

Unless lakes are rejuvenated at the earliest by preventing them from getting polluted all usable ground water resources may soon get exhausted.

In India, lakes serve as source of water for drinking, agriculture, and even industries. It acts as sewage absorbers, flood cushions and recharge zones for groundwater aquifers. It is an ecosystem where a variety of birds and animals breed; pisciculture, and aquaculture thrive leading to a source of income for people.
Lake tourism is an immensely profiting sector.

Slowly, many of these prized possessions have vanished or are vanishing. Reasons: draining of lake water for real estates in cities and cultivable and factory land in villages; dumping of effluents — both domestic and industrial; agricultural runoff; encroachments, and general neglect.

At sea we are very familiar with BOD5 and COD tests.  There are corrupt places like Ukraine where they try to cheat , prove that your sewage tank is malfunctioning and milk thousands of US dollars of bribes from the Captain. 

BOD5 means  Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in water . It measures the amount of oxygen required or consumed for the microbiological decomposition (oxidation) of organic material in water.  The unit of Measurement is  mg/l of oxygen consumed in 5 days at a constant  temperature of 20°C in the dark.   

Basically BOD5 is a useful measure to assess the effectiveness of sewage water treatment processes.  BOD5 is a measure of the amount of oxygen that is consumed by bacteria as it breaks down organic matter in a sample during a five-day period under standardized conditions.

BOD5 limit could range from 5–50 mg/liter, depending upon your wastewater flow, receiving stream flow and the water quality standards of the receiving waters .

Legend has it that the 5-day BOD (Biological or Biochemical Oxygen Demand) test was developed in England.  Sewage was dumped in a river and it took five days for gora shit to travel from London to the North sea. -- hence the five-day incubation requirement in the BOD method.

The BOD5 of sewage varies from several hundred to about 1000 mg/l for raw sewage, and from about 10 to 20 mg/l for good quality secondary effluent


BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants.  BOD is similar in function to chemical oxygen demand (COD), in that both measure the amount of organic compounds in water. However, COD is less specific, since it measures everything that can be chemically oxidized, rather than just levels of biologically active organic matter. Fish and aquatic insects may die when oxygen is depleted by microbial metabolism.

COD is a measure of the amount of oxygen required to breakdown the organic matter in a sample under very strong oxidizing conditions. During the COD test, the sample is subjected to boiling with sulfuric acid and a strong oxidizer, such as potassium dichromate.  

COD or Chemical Oxygen Demand is the total measurement of all chemicals in the water that can be oxidized.  COD is usually a measurement of chemicals and the test is simple and easy to perform with the right equipment and can be done in 2 hours.   

 A COD test measures all organic carbon with the exception of certain aromatics (benzene, toluene, phenol, etc.) which are not completely oxidized in the reaction. COD is a chemically chelated/thermal oxidation reaction, and therefore, other reduced substances such as sulfides, sulfites, and ferrous iron will also be oxidized and reported as COD.   NH3-N (ammonia) will NOT be oxidized as COD.

Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality. It is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) also referred to as ppm (parts per million), which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per liter of solution.

Now let me talk about ground water pollution from burial grounds. 

Burial grounds must be situated on top of an impervious soil layer —or disease borne organic and inorganic contaminants will percolate into an under ground aquifer.

Burial plots should be at least 300 metres away from a borehole, spring or well used for the supply of drinking water . The area of the site is not suitable for burial if there is standing water at the bottom of the burial pit when first dug.

For reasons still poorly understood, corpses don't invariably decompose into potting soil as many assume.  Instead, the fat tissue, usually in the presence of moisture, sometimes turns into a solid, soap like substance that makes the cadaver look like something you'd find in a wax museum ( adipocere ) . 

The grave should be shallow enough to allow microbial activity similar to that found in composting.

The most common embalming fluid is composed of organic chemicals and contains 5–29% formaldehyde, ethanol and water. Formaldehyde is cancer causing even in very small amounts.

Most of the kidney hospitals in Kerala are full of dialysis patients due to Formalin used in preserving fish without ice.

Punch into Google search-

The formadelyde solution cross-links proteins found in tissue-cell membranes, slowing down bacterial decomposition and inhibiting the body's breakdown in the earth. 

The ability of embalming fluid to contaminate soil or water tables has not been studied thoroughly.. and let me tell Americans that the explosion in Alzhiemers must be investigated. .


Bury without a casket, in just the shroud.  By all means transport the body to the burial pit in a casket, but remove the casket before putting the soil to cover the pit.

Again, --formaldehyde is a  carcinogen.

Cemeteries  must NOT have groundwater closer than 3.0 metres below ground level.

Is anybody listening ?

Rainwater harvesting is done mainly for two reasons – one, to store the water for later use (in lakes, reservoirs or domestic sumps) and MOST IMPORTANTLY two, to recharge the underground aquifers.

India is drained by twelve major river systems with a number of smaller rivers and streams. Major river systems in the north are the perennial Himalayan rivers – Ganga, Yamuna, Indus and Brahmaputra. The south has the non-perennial but rain fed Krishna, Godavari, and Cauvery while central India has the Narmada, Mahanadi and Tapti.

Below:  Avoiding evaporation losses and wastage of rain water which runs off to sea , from rivers.

An aquifer should not be mistaken for an underground river. An underground river is one that has a clear cut channel for water to move under the ground. Water does not have to seep through the rocks to move. It flows freely in the channel. It is just that the channel is buried and not seen from above ground.

Topographic constraints, distribution pattern, technical limitation, poor management and lack of perception and intelligence of water authorities in charge does  not allow India to harness its water resources efficiently.

Underneath the hard rock on the surface of the earth, are layers of different types of rock. Some layers such as sandstone, conglomerate, fractured limestone, unconsolidated sand and gravel, basalt etc. have some amount of porosity and therefore allow water to seep and flow through them.

Each type of rock allows the water to flow faster or slower depending on the size of its pores. Water seeps in and exists within each rocky layer. Depending on the pattern in which these rocky layers are formed in the earth, water chooses to flow faster or slower in certain paths.

Thus if we can see through the rocks, we will see a slowly moving water body. This body of rock through which water is moving, is called an aquifer.

Some chemicals are commonly present in water wells at levels that are not toxic, but can cause other problems. Calcium and magnesium cause what is known as hard water, which can precipitate and clog pipes or burn out water heaters.

Iron and manganese can appear as dark flecks that stain clothing and plumbing, and can promote the growth of iron and manganese bacteria that can form slimy black colonies that clog pipes.

Groundwater moves through porous rock formations similar to the way water flows through a sponge with inter-connected pores. In nature, no space remains empty. Therefore, the pore space within the underground rock formations, no matter how small, remains filled either with air or water.

Water is also unable to pass through compact rocks like granite, basalt, quartzite etc., which are usually devoid of any primary porosity.

An aquifer that is sandwiched between two impervious formations is called a confined aquifer. In alluvial region, when a sand layer ( permeable ) occurs in between two clay layers (impervious formations), the sand layer becomes a confined aquifer.

Water in a confined aquifer enters from a far away location where a part of the aquifer is exposed to the surface or to other sources of water for its recharge. Water in a confined aquifer occurs under hydrostatic pressure as the recharge area is essentially located at a higher elevation.

Water level in a bore well drilled in a confined aquifer moves up much above the depth of the tapped aquifer to a level referred as the piezometric surface which corresponds to the hydrostatic pressure in the aquifer.

An over-flowing or artesian well is an example of tapping a confined aquifer whose recharge area is located at a level higher than the surface elevation of the bore well site.  

When a well is dug in an unconfined aquifer, water from the formation seeps in to the well and gradually builds up a water column. The top surface of this water column finally stops rising any further and remains static when it reaches the level of the water table.  

The depth of static water level as seen in a well is also the depth of the water table in the aquifer.  The govt must be transparent and give this dynamic level on the internet with trends by graph . Quite often people invest their lives savings in a property and get stuck with this waterless white elephant.

It is true that the better yielding dug wells are usually found at depressions and valleys rather than on a ridge or high ground. This is because, the formation at a depression or valley is more weathered (permeable) and receives more recharge.  

Water first enters an aquifer through gravity induced downward movement (percolation) but within an aquifer it also flows in a lateral direction. 

This flow can occur due to the dip (slope) of the aquifer or artificial conditions induced within the aquifer such as pumping or recharging. Natural groundwater flow through an aquifer is rather slow and is about a few centimeters a day.

It is the property of the aquifer called permeability (ease of flow) that determines the yield of a well. The shape of water table also gets influenced by the permeability of the aquifer. Water table would tend to rise higher in that part of the aquifer where aquifer permeability is relatively low and vice versa. 

Shallow water table encountered in a dug well is not necessarily an indication of higher yield. Another well in the vicinity with deeper water table can yield higher quantity of water due to better permeability of the aquifer.

In reality, regional water table is not as flat as we presume. Water table tends to follow the shape of the topography. Therefore, in an undulating area, water table is not quite flat but would tend to take a shape akin to the topography.

The flow of water through a granular formation is governed by Darcy’s law which states that the flow through a porous media (Q) is directly proportional to the hydraulic gradient (L/H), where the permeability (K) of the media is the constant of proportionality . 

In hard rock areas, however, flow of water through fracture zones does not follow Darcy’s law as the flow is similar to the flow through an open pipe.

On chemical tankers we use Darcy’s law for the toxic/ carcinogenic vapor return system.

Punch into Google search-

In India if we ask a water expert about Darcy’s law , he will probably scratch his head.  We need more perceptive people in the water resources dept ( with better salaries ) than in electronics and computer engineering.

Hilly regions are known to have poor groundwater storage. This happens because water from rainfall and other surface water bodies that seep underground tend to flow out when exposed to steep mountain sides. In hilly regions, it is quite a common sight to find that water is seeping or spurting out as a spring from along an exposed side of a hill. 

Sometimes we find small dug wells at the top of a hill temple that contains water round the year and people get impressed.  This well at the hill top eventually receives groundwater recharge through fractures or delayed seepage from a recharge area located at an even higher elevation in some out of sight adjoining hills. 

Besides, in most cases, such wells do not get dry as only very little quantity of water is extracted for regular use. 

There is NO miracle in this-- for water finds its universal level..

You may wonder why a place like Rajasthan despite having such thick layers of sand formations is still poor in groundwater occurrence. The reason being that the recharge received from rainfall by these thick sand formations is never adequate to build up a water table. The entire infiltration gets disseminated and lost within the unsaturated zone before reaching an impervious layer at depth for building up a water table.

Occurrence and distribution of groundwater is controlled primarily by the geology of the area and the quantum of recharge received by the existing aquifer formations.  

The alluvial tracts of river valleys and the coastal plains containing alternative deposits of sand and clay of varying thickness are rich in groundwater. Regions underlain by hard rocks are poor in groundwater resources.

The groundwater table undergoes a seasonal fluctuation . The water table rises during rainy season due to recharge received from rainfall and falls back during summer season due to lack of recharge and continuing extraction of groundwater. 

In geohydrology, the highest water level is referred to as the post-monsoon water level and the lowest level in summer as pre-monsoon water level. 

Quantum of water being received by an aquifer from annual recharge can be computed from the annual ground water fluctuation in conjunction with estimated groundwater extraction in that area.  Records and trends must be maintained.

Groundwater in an area is said to be falling (receding or declining) when annual groundwater extraction exceeds the annual groundwater recharge. 

The excess water extracted in such a situation comes from the groundwater dead storage built up over many centuries  and hence the over-extraction is known as GROUND WATER MINING.  It is a well known fact that such reckless mining is going on in India since the past 20 years.

An aquifer is said to be over-exploited when the annual groundwater extraction is higher than the annual recharge.  For sustainable utilization of groundwater, only that much water should be extracted which is replenished every year by rainfall through groundwater recharge. 

To achieve this, we must either reduce our groundwater extraction (demand side management) or increase recharge to the extent possible by adapting artificial recharge measures (supply side management).  Or else, the groundwater table will continue to fall leading to an unprecedented situation.

Bentonie clay slurry can be used for an impenetrable bottom and sides in the pit, instead of large plastic sheets.

It is important to recharge the coastal aquifers like in Chennai, to prevent salt water ingress.


Coastal regions are rich in groundwater owing to the largely alluvial terrain, but the aquifers risk being contaminated by saltwater ingress due to over pumping.

In India, the number of shallow tubewells used to draw groundwater was 2000 in 1955, and is now in excess of 30 million.

Lowering of water table has rendered millions of existing shallow dug wells in the country go dry. This in turn has led to an unhealthy race for deepening the existing dug wells but more so for the construction of deeper and deeper bore wells.  

As the cost of accessing groundwater has been increasing progressively, in near future groundwater will be accessible only to the very rich, depriving the poorer lot. An ancient abandoned and dry dug well can be used very conveniently as a makeshift artificial recharge structure. 

Millions of dug wells in the country which at one time were yielding groundwater have gone completely dry as even the post-monsoon water table has gone below the depth of such dug wells—losing out in competition to deep borewells..

All that needs to be done is that the abandoned dug well should be clean enough i.e. free from any dumping of undesirable materials like plastic and impermeable clay.

High concentrations of arsenic sometimes exist in deeper levels of groundwater.

The acceptable level as defined by WHO for maximum concentrations of arsenic in safe drinking water is 0.01 mg/L.  But is is safer if it is  less than  0.05 mg/L

Arsenic contaminated water can cause major health problems,--  cancer, diseases of the circulatory and respiratory system, diabetes mellitus, and kidney and liver diseases.

Activated alumina is an adsorbent that effectively removes arsenic.

In subterranean arsenic removal (SAR), aerated groundwater is recharged back into the aquifer to create an oxidation zone which can trap iron and arsenic on the soil particles through adsorption process. No chemicals are used and almost no sludge is produced during operational stage since iron and arsenic compounds are rendered inactive in the aquifer itself. 

Thus toxic waste disposal and the risk of its future mobilization is prevented. Also, it has very long operational life, similar to the long lasting tube wells drawing water from the shallow aquifers.

Water may be physically uncontaminated and look safe but it may still be contaminated chemically and bacteriologically. Major cations found dissolved in water in appreciable quantities are calcium, sodium and magnesium in combination with anions like chloride, carbonate and sulphate. 

Other chemical elements found commonly in groundwater in minute quantities that are known to cause serious health hazards are iron, fluoride, arsenic, boron, detergents, heavy metals and other site specific contaminants.

Water is said to have temporary hardness when it contains soluble bi-carbonates of calcium and magnesium. When heated the bicarbonates convert into insoluble carbonates which are deposited out of the water, making it soft. 

Permanent hardness is formed due to presence of salts of sulphate and chloride in combination with calcium, sodium and magnesium. These salts can be removed from water only through chemical reactions with other salts referred to as softening reagents or through the process of reverse osmosis.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). It is the total quantity of chemical salts dissolved in water and is measured  in parts per million (ppm). One ppm means 1 mg of salt is dissolved in 1000 liters of water. For drinking purposes - TDS up to 500 ppm is quite good.

While the TDS and pH of drinking water may be well within the permissible limit, but presence of arsenic, fluoride, iron and any other toxic compounds beyond the permissible limit can make the water harmful to health.

Though the water may get physically cleaned of physical impurities while percolating through a porous media to recharge groundwater,  the chemical properties remain more or less the same. In hard rock formation, polluted water can directly infiltrate to the groundwater storage carrying the surface contaminants through fractured zones. 

Soils nowadays contain a host of man made pollutants in large quantities. Rain water carries whatever pollutants it has dissolved from soil during its journey downwards. It is imperative that India band plastics. Force these multinational soft drink companies to store soft drinks in glass bottles. If they don’t do that kick them out of India.  

Many factory owners pump in their chemical effluents directly into bore holes for disposal, which is without a doubt an unpardonable criminal-they should be heavily fined and imprisoned. We even know of overflowing septic sewage tank contents ( feces ) being transported by trucks and pumped into abandoned wells at night.


The control of drinking-water quality is therefore critical in preventing fluorosis. In all fluoride affected areas it is advised that rainwater harvesting is done to recharge the groundwater source that shows high fluoride levels.

Nalgonda District in Andhra Pradesh is said to have the highest concentration of people affected by fluorosis. Nearly 500 villages in the district are gripped by fluorosis resulting in twenty thousand fluorosis victims in the district.

According to the World Health Organization, maximum level of fluoride in water should be 1 ppm or 1 mg/l. In Nalgonda, the water contains up to 10 ppm of fluoride. Many adults and even young children have been irreversibly affected by skeletal fluorosis in this district.

High fluoride content in water can lead to dental fluorosis, brittle bones and quick ageing. In India an estimated 60 million people have been poisoned by well water contaminated by excessive fluoride, which is dissolved from the granite rocks.

The effects are particularly evident in the bone deformations of children. exposure to "high" levels of fluoride (variously defined) in childhood was associated with a reduction in IQ by more than 10 points on the Mensa scale—you become mandha buddhis.

There are methods used in developing countries that are suitable for either large-scale fluoridation plants or for domestic/household use. In some cases it would assist to educate residents to avoid using untreated groundwater for cooking or drinking.

In USA they have put fluoride in the municipal water and caused a full generation of daft hilly Billys with shriveled and calcified pineal glands.

Punch into Google search-


Flushing the western commode takes lot of water.  In cities the govt must enforce the partial flush option.  It is not about HAVE MONEY WILL FLUSH.   It is about wasting a national ground water resource.  People with diabetes who pee a lot, keep flushing the whole day— and India is full of diabetics .

Ground water must NOT be wasted.  AK49 did NOT understand this wisdom, when he reduced the water bills of New Delhi -- so that he could  topple the Delhi CM Sheila Dikshit. 

AK-49 must know that Indians respond to higher water prices by using less of it, just as they respond to higher petrol prices by using less of it. 

Our foreign funded Indian media puts JOURNALISM  FIRST --    hey, how about putting WATAN FIRST ?

The govt must grade aquifers as AA- POTABLE,  BB- WASH WATER CC- FLUSHING AND IRRIGATION.   

Pure pristine potable aquifers must be controlled by the water authority. Indiscriminate , ignorant water harvest recharge of ground water by all and sundry in these areas can cause more damage than good.

Bangalore may have to be abandoned very soon, if prompt measures are NOT taken.

The Kanteerva stadium at Bangalore constructed in 1997 was a lake before.

Kempegowda Bus Station, more commonly known as Majestic Bus Station, built in 1980 at Bangalore was a lake before.

The Bangalore golf course built in 1996 was a lake before .

JP park of Bangalore was a lake before.

Some of the major lakes that disappeared over the years are [6][7]:

Shoolay lake changed to Football stadium
Akkithimmanhalli lake changed to Corporation Hockey stadium
Sampangi lake changed to Kanteerava Sports Complex
Dharmanbudhi lake changed to Kempegowda Bus Station
Challaghatta lake changed to Karnataka Golf Association
Koramangala lake changed to National Games Complex in Ejipura
Siddikatte Lake has now become KR Market
Karanji tank is the Gandhi Bazar area
Kempambudhi is now a sewerage collection tank
Nagashettihalli lake changed to Space department
Kadugondanahalli lake changed to Ambedkar Medical College
Domlur lake changed to BDA layout
Millers lake changed to Guru Nanak Bhavan, Badminton Stadium
Subhashnagar lake changed to Residential layout
Kurubarahalli lake changed to Residential layout
Kodihalli lake changed to Residential layout
Sinivaigalu lake changed to Residential layout
Marenahalli lake changed to Residential layout
Shivanahalli lake changed to Playground, Bus stand
Chenamma tank changed to a burial ground, Banashankari 2nd Stage
Puttennahalli tank changed to J.P. Nagar 6th Phase
Jakkarayanakere has been converted into a sports ground
Kamakshipalya Lake is converted into a sports ground
Baalayyana Kere (kamakshipalya) is converted into a sports ground
Dasarahalli tank is converted into Dr. B.R Ambedkar Stadium

18 lakes are now slums at Bangalore.  8 have been eaten up by builders in connivance with politicians and municipality.  28 lakes have been officially been distributed by the Bangalore Development Authority for residential areas.

Coastal fresh water aquifers ingressed by saline water ( by over pumping with deep borewells ) can be desalinated by reverse osmosis—  

It is easier , faster and more economical to purify brackish fresh water  than to desalinate ocean water of full salt content.

Reverse osmosis plant membrane systems typically use less energy than thermal distillation, which has led to a reduction in overall desalination costs , in recent times.

The largest desalination plant in South Asia is the Minjur Desalination Plant near north of Chennai (Kattupalli village ) in India, which produces 36.5 million cubic meters of water per year.

Above :  Minjur desalination plant which supplies 100 million litres ( one lak tonnes ) a day water to Chennai city was inaugurated on July 31, 2010.

The 2003 Ordinance which made rainwater harvesting compulsory is one of the best things that ever happened to Chennai. The state government directed all homes, offices and government buildings to install rainwater harvesting structures within their premises. There was a mad rush towards the end as the authorities had threatened to cut off electricity and water supply connections if anyone failed to do so.  

Post-2003, the groundwater table in the city had risen by 6 meters, a phenomenal achievement by any standard within such a short span. This is what a ruling govt must do—NOT divide and rule to cling on to power— and do NOTHING for the future of the people.. 

Chennai’s temple tanks, once used as cricket grounds, are filled to the brim now . Brimming ancient temple tanks are one of the best indicators of the increase in the city’s groundwater table.

In contrast check out Powai lake. 

This lake water which used to supply drinking water for Mumbai has been declared unfit to drink. 

The lake is just for Western tourist to gape at from their rooms of the 5 and 7 star hotels around the lake.

Below: We know how to send a rocket to Mars - but we cant save a lake ( Powai Mumbai ) !

Our kidneys purify the blood in our bodies by means of osmosis. To desalinate water, we must create a flow through a membrane, causing the water to leave the salty side of the membrane, flowing into the unsalted side. 

To achieve this, pressure must be created upon the water column on the salt side of the membrane; firstly, to remove the natural osmotic pressure and secondly, to create extra pressure on the water column, in order to push the water through the membrane. 

For the desalination of seawater, the pressure must be about 50-60 bars.  2.1 bars is what air pressure you put in your car tyre.

Landfills are the places that our garbage is taken to be buried. 

Landfills are supposed to have a protective bottom layer of impermeable clay , covered with tough and resilient plastic sheets, to prevent contaminants from getting into the ground water.  

However, if there is no proper bottom layer or it is cracked, contaminants from the landfill ( used engine lub oil, car battery acid, paint, household cleaners, etc.) can make their way down into the groundwater.

When we burn fossil fuels, chemicals called 'sulphur' and 'nitrogen' are released into the air.

Once in the air, they mix with water in the air , rain etc - and are transformed into different chemicals called 'sulphur dioxide' and 'nitrogen oxides' causing acid rain.   NOx is mainly discharged from an automobile engine.   

SO2 (sulfur dioxide) will make sulfuric (or sulfurous) acid.  NOx (oxides of nitrogen from combustion) will make nitric acid.  Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions.

Acid rain can have terrible effects on a forest. The acid takes away important minerals from the leaves and the soil. Minerals are like vitamins for trees and plants. Without them, trees and plants cannot grow properly. They lose their leaves and become very weak.

As acid rain flows through soils in a watershed, aluminum is released from soils into the lakes and streams located in that watershed. So, as pH in a lake or stream decreases, aluminum levels increase. Both low pH and increased aluminum levels are directly toxic to fish.

In addition, low pH and increased aluminum levels cause chronic stress that may not kill individual fish, but leads to lower body weight and smaller size and makes fish less able to compete for food and habitat. At pH 5, most fish eggs cannot hatch.

Tanning cottage industries has deliberately allowed harmful chemicals like Trichloroethylene and Toluene to ingress into the ground water aquifers. 

Nobody cares to check if these tanneries have the requisite waste treatment facilities, and how they dispose their effluents .  

The use of chemicals, such as sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, chromium sulphate etc. during the tanning processes is the major reason for the high concentration of major ions and chromium in groundwater.  

Chromium compounds are applied to protect hides from decay and to make them more durable against moisture and aging.  Hospitals are full with kidney , liver patients in the vicinity of these areas .

93%  percent of leather products are destined for markets in Europe and the United States— and we pollute our lands and water resources, for people who look down on Indians .

Polluted ground water is less visible, but more difficult to clean up, than pollution in rivers and lakes. Ground water pollution most often results from improper disposal of wastes on land.. Polluted groundwater is mapped by sampling soils and groundwater near suspected or known sources of pollution, to determine the extent of the pollution, and to aid in the design of groundwater remediation systems.

Preventing groundwater pollution near potential sources such as landfills requires lining the bottom of a landfill with watertight materials like impermeable clay, collecting any leachate with drains, and keeping rainwater off any potential contaminants, along with regular monitoring of nearby groundwater to verify that contaminants have not leaked into the groundwater. 

Groundwaters sustain rivers, wetlands, and lakes, as well as subterranean ecosystems within  alluvial aquifers.

When groundwater is removed from aquifers by excessive pumping, pore pressures in the aquifer drop and compression of the aquifer may occur. This compression may be partially recoverable if pressures rebound, but much of it is not. When the aquifer gets compressed, it may cause land subsidence, a drop in the ground surface.

How many of you have felt that your house has sunk a couple of feet since the last 40 years ?  In the first half of the 20th century, the city of San Jose, California dropped 13 feet from land subsidence caused by overpumping groundwater; this subsidence has been halted with improved groundwater management. 

Sea water moving inland is called a saltwater intrusion. In alternative fashion, salt from mineral beds may leach into the groundwater of its own accord. 

Saltwater intrusion occurs naturally to some degree in most coastal aquifers, owing to the hydraulic connection between groundwater and seawater. Because saltwater has a higher mineral content than freshwater, it is denser and has a higher water pressure.

Because saltwater has a higher content of dissolved salts and minerals, it is denser than freshwater, causing it to have higher hydraulic head than freshwater. Hydraulic head refers to the liquid pressure exerted by a water column: a water column with higher hydraulic head will move into a water column with lower hydraulic head, if the columns are connected.

The saltwater and freshwater meet in a transition zone where mixing occurs through dispersion and diffusion.
 As a result, saltwater can push inland beneath the freshwater. Saltwater intrusion can also be worsened by extreme events like cyclone storm surges. 

Groundwater extraction is the primary cause of saltwater intrusion. The construction of canals and drainage networks can lead to saltwater intrusion. Canals provide conduits for saltwater to be carried inland, as does the deepening of existing channels for navigation purposes by mindless dredging .

Salt water intrusion is nothing but mismanagement and people responsible must be held accountable.

Urumi wounds caused ingress of toxic metals ( like lead )  into the body which numbs the arms and wrist due to a palsied state—and the Kalari warrior is unable to take up arms again.  In 6000 year old Ayurveda Ayurveda Nitrate of Silver and Iodide of Potassium were used for instant cure.

Silver iodide, a powerful antiseptic , is prepared by reaction of an iodide solution (e.g., potassium iodide) with a solution of silver ions (e.g., silver nitrate). ).  A blight yellow  solid quickly precipitates.  This was used in Agnihotra yagnas to seed clouds and produce rain.

Annaad-bhavanti bhuutaani parjanyaad-anna sambhavah,
yagnyaad-bhavati parjanyo yagnyah karma samudbhavah  - BHAGAWAT GITA 4000 BC ( Vyasa )

Lord Krishna tells a despondant Arjuna , just before the Mahabharata battle 6000 year ago, :- Life is born from food, food is produced by rain, rain is produced by performing yagna and that yagnya is performed by doing Karma.

The silver iodide changes the composition of ultracold water in the clouds, turning the liquid into snow or ice, which then falls to the ground.

Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI.   In modern times Silver iodide is used in cloud seeding..  

For release by aircraft, silver iodide flares are ignited and dispersed as an aircraft flies through the inflow of a cloud.  When released by devices on the ground, the fine particles are carried downwind and upward by air currents after release.  

China used cloud seeding in Beijing just before the 2008 Olympic Games in order to clear the air of  severe smog.

To know more about urumi- the DEADLIEST WEAPON on this planet.

Punch into Google search-

And to know more about how ancient Indians dabbled in Silver ions and colloids –

Punch into Google search-



This post is incomplete , till you read the following two posts.

Punch into Google search-







Despite Typhoon Noru, 2017 is NOT yet an El Nino year. What is making Europe so warm ?

Nitrous oxide, a highly potent greenhouse gas is now being released from a warming Arctic

Nitrous oxide emissions have increased from Arctic peatlands following permafrost thaw- caused by Methane release.

If the GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL ( GWP ) is 1 for Carbon Dioxide, it is 302 for Nitrous oxide and 104 for Methane over a 20 year period.




More than 70 billion tons of nitrogen stocks are stored in the upper 3.5 metres of permafrost soil, a vast sum accumulated over thousands of years through the nitrogen cycle

The permafrost stocks are more than 600 times larger than the annual nitrogen load added as GM fertiliser to soils globally

Some of that nitrogen already exists in the form of “old” nitrous oxide, built up during the permafrost formation, while other mineralized nitrogen interacts with microbes to produce “new” nitrous oxide.

Nitrous oxide that is released into the atmosphere remains in the troposphere for more than a century and then it migrates to the stratosphere, where it depletes the ozone layer. The ozone layer serves as a protective barrier absorbing solar radiation; without it the sun’s ultraviolet rays would severely damage biological organisms, including humans.

Although the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty signed in 1987 to protect the ozone layer, Nitrous oxide was ignored. The Zionist Jews concentrated on WEE ozone depleting items ( like refrigerants ) where they can make money out of thin air.

Loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere may also reduce plant biomass, further contributing to climate change.

If nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere, plant growth won't be able to compensate for carbon being lost from permafrost soils

The most alarming phenomenon in the Arctic is the loss of the highly reflective snow and ice cover, known as the albedo..

High nitrous oxide saturations were recently observed in productive shallow Arctic shelf waters following significant reduction in sea ice cover..

Nitrous oxide is produced in the ocean water column and sediments by two pathways. The first is in oxygen-rich conditions in which ammonium is converted to nitrate, creating nitrous oxide as a byproduct. The second occurs in deoxygenated sediments where nitrous oxide is produced in an intermediate stage between the conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas.

The loss of sea ice cover in Arctic shelf waters has resulted in increased sunlight absorption, fueling phytoplankton growth. Following phytoplankton death, organic material is remineralized to ammonium, which can be converted to nitrate and ultimately produce nitrous oxide.

What happens in the Arctic doesn’t stay in the Arctic ( unlike the Cricket team dressing room politics )

Indians were the first to use BIOCHAR for agriculture . It converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and increase soil biodiversity, and discourage deforestation. The process creates a fine-grained, highly porous charcoal that helps soils retain nutrients and water.

India was blessed with HUMUS laden topsoil with healthy microbes and earthworms for millions of years. Just 55 years of desh drohi GREEN REVOLUTION has decimated our holy topsoil.

90% of our lakes have disappeared.


    Our hospitals are full die to the effects of NITROSAMINES and EVIL PHARMA is laughing all the way to the bank with “Alice in Wonderland “ PM Modi clapping from the sidelines

    Read all 6 pats of the post below--


    Organic soil forms can be further divided into "recalcitrant carbon" or resistant to decay, like humus, and "labile carbon," where the carbon is both bioavailable (in the form of easily degraded compounds such as oils, sugars and alcohols) and physically accessible to microbes (not bound up with minerals).

    The organic carbon pool includes both the living bodies and the dead, decomposing bodies of bacteria, fungi, insects and worms, along with plant debris and manure

    Indian topsoil was 6 feet deep—unlike other nations of this planet having a few inches deep top soil.

    Modern, chemically-based GM agriculture depletes soil carbon..


    Soil building is the product of a self-reinforcing, positive feedback loop. But soil decline is also a self-reinforcing loop that can result in catastrophic soil loss.

    Nitrogen fertilizers combined with tillage accelerate microbial respiration, burning up soil carbon faster than it is replaced. Due to the loss of organic carbon reservoirs, many soils have become nearly lifeless substrates that must be continually fed with irrigation water, mineral nutrients and pesticides to produce a crop. Although productive in the short term, this practice is not sustainable

    The desh drohi GREEN REVOLUTION has caused our holy topsoil to lose 80% of their original soil organic carbon (SOC) pool.


    Biochar serves as an electron buffer for redox reactions and helps bacteria swap electrons among themselves, improving their metabolic efficiency as a microbial community.. With its pores and its electrical charges, biochar is capable of both aBsorption and aDsorption.. The surfaces of biochar, both internal and external, aDsorb materials by electro-chemical bonds, working like an electric sponge.

    Biochar surfaces adsorb carbon and retain it in compounds with minerals, supporting at the same time a large microbial community that potentially makes more efficient use of organic debris containing carbon and other nutrients.
    balanced compost, with the optimum C:N ratio, will contain lots of humus. However, if there is not enough stable carbon (from wood, straw or other lignin sources), then the easily degradable sugars, fats and proteins will be completely consumed by microbes leaving very little substrate behind

    Both biochar and compost increases cation exchange capacity (CEC - the ability to hold onto and transfer nutrient cations: ammonium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium)…

    They supports soil microbial life and biodiversity and helps plants resist diseases and pathogens. They add humus carbon to the soil carbon pool, reducing the atmospheric carbon pool—and increases soil water holding capacity. In coastal areas they help plants grow better in high salt situations.

    Unlike biochar, compost is quickly broken down by microbial action in soil over months to at most, decades, depending primarily on climate. Biochar lasts at least ten times longer in most soils.. Biochar is effective at retaining nitrogen in soils and there is NO need for CHEMICAL UREA.




    Adding biochar to compost reduced the amount of dissolved organic carbon (labile carbon) in mature compost while increasing the fraction of stable humic materials (stable carbon).

    The desh drohi GREEN REVOLUTION has left us with a rapidly deteriorating climate, and soils that are dying and eroding. Biochar, as a form of recalcitrant carbon, is the medicine that DELIBERETELY degraded and unproductive Indian top soils need.



    Tall grasses burn quick and hot, however, close to the ground where the roots start, air is excluded so the base of the grasses will pyrolyze and not burn. This kind of natural charcoal is present in the most valuable agricultural soils in the world

    WHITE REVOLUTION and GREEN REVOLUTION has bled Bharatmata with a million cuts— the deep wound are pus filled sores today .





    Capt ajit vadakayil

Grace and peace !

"May Goddess Saraswati, who is fair like the jasmine-colored moon, and whose pure white garland is like frosty dew drops, who is adorned in radiant white attire, on whose beautiful arm rests the veena, and whose throne is a white lotus, who is surrounded and respected by the Gods, protect us.  May she fully remove our lethargy, sluggishness, and ignorance. "