Tuesday, July 31, 2012

MY EXPERIENCE AT MUNDRA PORT , ADANI SEZ- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL

MUNDRA PORT,  ADANI PORT AND SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE ,   SEZ -  CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL


Early this year ( 2012 ) my chemical tanker laden with Methanol from Sohar Oman went to Mundra Port Gujarat for discharge.

I had a bizarre experience there,  never experienced before in my 3 decades of command.

The Methanol at Sohar was loaded under absolute quality control.

My ship's stainless steel tanks failed the PTT test of wall wash. It was a expensive first foot failure for Capt Vadakayil--for the first time in his life.

Since I always back myself in such bad situations, I  gave a rare challenge.  I contested the Lab report and called in my P&I insurers from London. 

You can read about this by punching into Google search--

 WALL WASH PTT WITHOUT TEARS, CHEMICAL TANKERS- VADAKAYIL. 

Believe me when I say  taking on a shore wall wash lab is always a losing battle.

To cut a long story short, I won.

The lab would be put to an strict inspection for vetting their own competence and procedures.

So we went hoppety hop to Mundra Port to discharge this stuff.  

Though my VLCC where I was second mate was the first to discharge at Vadinar SBM terminal and I was engaged in lighterage operations at Sikka , where I commanded mother ships discharging into daughter vessels, later on I lost touch with Gujarat.  I was coming to Gujarat after probably 2 decades.

Of course I used to remember Gujarat.

We used to go ashore by launch and at low tide the boat had to stop way off the shore. We used to ride piggy back on young guys for a small fee, who would wade through mud and carry us on their backsides till our feet could touch terra firma. And at this time I could see conch shells ( Shank ) as big as large coconuts.


In the evenings, invariably the daughter ship Captain ,would come on my ship with his family and the Loading master, by crane basket transfer ,  to chat over a few beers and have dinner. My wife used to play host .


Mother ships had bond ( booze ) while daughter ships were coastal and were devoid of bond.

We used to buy large crabs, from fishing boats who came alongside , clean them up and put them in a hundi , with just salt at the bottom and steam them. No water was put. The crabs stewed in their own juices. The flesh of the extraordinary large crabs used to be so tasty.

Today with the rape of the ecology by mindless sanctions of development-- all this marine ecology has disappeared. Rich mangroves forest areas have been choked. The Gujarat fishermen now have to venture into the Pakistani waters and poach in case they have to make a profit.  Is this the cost of development?

I don't want to take names here.

As a patriotic Indian I was proud after reading about Gautam Adani's initiative and the great strides he had made in starting such a fantastic port, from marshland. Mundra Port was the largest among 12 private ports of India.

The first bad taste came when the agents send a email stating that unless I waive all my rights away, i cannot berth at Mundra Port-- and that every ship till now has signed such a waiver.

My ship had to berth on 100 % terms of Mundra Port, come hell , come high water.  I have never seen such a legal document like this, ever before.

Naturally I had to refer this to my owners in Japan and my Managers in Singapore. 

My charterers in USA , was quick in imploring that I should sign this waiver as soon as possible. To cut a long story short, I was forced to sign this, against my better judgement on being advised to do so by the owners of the ship.

Between the time the pilot boarded to berth the ship and the time I dropped off the outgoing pilot, after discharging all the Methanol, Mundra port became my least favourite port among the all the ports of this planet.

First of all my ship was berthed at a unsafe coal jetty, with trucks and cars driving past, and at least 2 dozen people on the quay using their mobile phones.

There was NOT a single employee, port official (like Customs/Immigration etc)  or a service provider in the port, who did NOT curse Adani Inc under his breath.

It left me wondering -what the hell, are these guys jealous of a young successful Indian entrepreneur Gautam Adani , when actually they should be proud of him ?

They all gave me unsolicited information that Gautam Adani was a pauper who rose up to dizzying heights not because of his brains , but because of his wheeling and dealing.

One of his own school mates at CN Seth Vidyalaya told me about young Gautam Adani . That he was from a impoverished family, and that he lacked the grey matter in class etc.

Again I told myself-- sheer jealousy.

But then could everybody be wrong?

So I challenged this man to authenticate his charges.

So he says  'The whole of Gujarat knows that all this land of area 14500 acres or 5.8 crore square metres of land has been given to him for single digit rupee cost -- without auction !"

To be frank I was a bit shocked. 

If so how is that nobody has filed a complaint? Surely some business rival should take him on?  Are we not in the age of Anna Hazare?

Suddenly my Peruvian Chief Officer calls me up on walkie talkie and says "  Sir, the cargo  tank surveyors are opening out the tanks domes to do open sampling. If we do NOT start cargo within 2 hours of coming alongside ( not gangway down ). there will be some thousand US dollars fine for the next minute and then every hour after that"

To add to our woes dozens of labourers were tipping coal from the empty chutes and I had a fine layer of black coal all over my grey deck, including my nostrils.

Methanol is such a clean cargo, that you cant even have a speck of dust in the cargo.

I tried to expostulate, being an Indian , I did NOT want to make an issue in an Indian port, if things could be reasoned out amicably.

This is when I notices the arrogance of the port. Never seen anything like thing before in any other port in the world.  They stopped the tipping , when I said I will inform the buyers or Methanol, within an hour.

The top managers of the port ( no names!) , punch drunk with power, were absolutely sure of themselves.  " This is our way, If you don't like it you can cast off your ship on your account and drop anchor!  If the other ship on the next berth can do open ullaging ( Indian SCI ship with diesel ) , why cant you do it? "

They made a big mistake.

They were cocky enough and gave this in writing by email via the agents. Which I promptly forwarded to my P&I in London. 

Surely Mundra -- nay Adani port is NOT gonna get any awards in the near future-- like how they wrangled the "BEST PORT OF THE YEAR AWARD 2006" from Lloyds London.

The Adani brand had taken a huge dent because of this incident, in the foreign shipping circles.  Never mind their local clout!

Trying to rush cargo surveyors to do open ullaging on 28 nos SS tanks full of Methanol, is so dangerous --in fact more dangerous than putting a cobra in your only child's bedroom and locking the door.

 14500 acres or 5.8 crore square metres of land bought for single digit rupee cost per sq metre -- without auction, in the year 2003 -

WOW !

-- if this is NOT wheeling and dealin' and favouritism , what else could it be?


And we have put poor Raja in jail.

In USA lobbyists are official pimps who do the wheeling -dealin' and bribery. 

The CBI had 5,851 recordings of “wheeling and dealing”  phone conversations by Nira Radia Radia, some of which clearly outline Radia's attempts to broker deals in relation to the 2G spectrum sale. The tapes demonstrate how Radia attempted to powerful media persons to influence the decision to appoint A. Raja as telecom minister. She was Ratan Tata’s lobbyist.


Punch into google search PERSONAL BRANDING- VADAKAYIL.

Top managers of ports must care about not denting their own brand. If Gautam Adani reads this post, he must bear this in mind.

Gautam Adani was in the first floor restaurant Chambers of Taj hotel Mumbai when Paki terrorists attacked -- and he was rescued after 2 hours by commandos.


At Mundra port if the Captain does NOT meet the corrupt gratuity demands ( excessive ) of the boarding customs officer on arival , he can forget about receiving provisions and stores.  Customs have been given unlimited powers quoting LEVEL 2  security.  And finally the Captain has waived all his powers to this private port.

So, from now on anybody who punches ito Google search MUNDRA PORT EXPERIENCE , will see this post on page one among thousands-- such is the readership I command.

When Mundra port's top bosses send a communication to a senior Indian Master , Capt Vadakayil, telling him to FU#K OFF,  they never anticipated this permanent dent in their brand, right?

Grace and peace!




CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
..

Sunday, July 29, 2012

LALA LAJPAT RAI, THE LION OF PUNJAB- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL



THE FREEDOM FIGHTER , A MARTYR WHO FELT FOR HIS MOTHERLAND-  CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL

Nearly 4 decades ago, when I did my 2nd Mate's exam, we used to go to Shere-e Punjab restaurant from Seaman's Club Mumbai , to have our dinner. It was a economy hotel , but gave good food and fast service--and we could ill affors to lose time waiting for service.



I asked my Punjabi batch mate, what does the name of the restaurant indicate. He had NO dang clue.


Well Lala Lajpat Rai, is the LION of Punjab.


It must be noted that in 1857, during the First war of Independence, the whole of India united as one to drive away the British. The Sikhs and the Gurkhas sided with the British. Gurkhas are NOT Indians.  Sikhs must know that this is a permanent blot on their fair name.


The 1857, Sepoy Mutiny was engineered by Rothschild, the German Jewish owners of  British East India Company. They had their paid Indian "double agent" stooges , taunting the Hindu and Muslim soldiers,  that they are "dharm bhrasht", and that the lard of cow and pig fat was used on the cartridges they were forced to bite off.  This constant nit-pickin' did the trick.
This revolt was carefully nurtured and allowed to fan out, in a controlled manner, so that Rothschild who onwed the British East India Company could stop all pretences of being traders, and now take over the British Empire in India.  The first thing they did was to have a huge party at the Red Fort, and prise off the golden spires of Taj Mahal, melt it and cart it away to their underground bank vaults.


Same way, Lala Lajpat Rai was done in by heavy Lathi blows on the left side of his chest. The British knew very well that he had a heart condition, as he had been imprisoned by them several times, in horrible conditions.



Lala Lajpat Rai was leading a peaceful and silent demonstration, the way Mahatma Gandhi wanted it, outside Lahore Railway station, on Oct 30th 1928.  He was standing behind the first row of barbed wire, along with Pandit madan Mohan Malivya.  The other side had paid Indian stooges welcoming Simon and party--BR Ambedkar was such a British agent.. 


Lala was beaten up for no plausible reason. Bhagat Singh was eye witness, as he was part of this group of protestors.



Though in severe pain, the same evening Lala told at a crowded public meeting in Lahore City, "Every blow on our bodies this afternoon is like a nail driven into the coffin of British imperialism."



17 days later, on Nov 17th , Lala Lajpat Rai, succumbed to the shock of the internal injury suffered. Dr. Lt Col Roy, who had examined Lala 5 hours before the arrival of Simon Commission at Lahore, had recorded that his chest on the left side was swollen and had red welt marks, with severe pain while breathing.


Nov 17th is celebrated by Martyr's day in India. Every Indian must know what this day means.



The British were equal to the occasion. The attributed the blue marks on the left side of the chest on the dead body of Lala as chicanery by the Indians , who used blue INK , and made marks.  Professor Abdul Majid Khan was roped in to announce on Radio Jullunder that he personally witnessed the scene and that no blows were received by Lala Lajpat Rai at all on his body.

The British bribed another Indian to announce that these ink marks were put on the advise of S Kishen Singh, the father of Bhagat Singh to Achint Ram, and that a photographer was told to take these doctored pictures, for political leverage.


Bhagat Singh who was a graduate from the National College Lahore, founded by Lala, was emotionally charged on hearing this,  to take revenge--.and he did!

British did another propaganda that Bhagat Singh killed the wrong guy sSnders while it was Scott who hit Lala.  This means Bhagat Singh, Yashpal, Sukhdev, Bhagavati Charan etc who tried to take the blows rained on Lala , on themselves , were all lying fools.

Lala Lajpat Rai was actively involved with the Arya Samaj. Every time there was a famine or drought or earth quake in India, British sponsored Christian missionaries could arrive on the scene like locusts to give first aid.  The whole idea was to lay their "soul prostituted " hands on innocent orphans and convert them to Christianity. Lala would collect these destitute children and admit them to Arya Samaj shelters.


Lalaji joined the Congress as a freedom fighter in 1888, due to  a singular reason. Sir Syed Ahmed ( all British stooges were SIR those days ) who was in the Congress had just then left it. He had begun to argue and do propaganda that Indian Muslims should not join the Congress and that they should support the British government.

Lala wrote passionate open letters to him in the Urdu weekly Koh-i-noor'. The letters were noted by all in political circles, pissing off the British. The same year in the Congress session at Allahabad, when Lalaji arrived with eighty delegates from Punjab, he received a tumultuous welcome. His stirring speech in Urdu there had a great effect on the Muslim leaders. Lala was a young man of 23 years. His fame spread quickly in Congress.


By the way, the Islamic Khilafat Movement was launched by Indian muslims in September 1919 to protect the Turkish Khalifa and save the Ottoman empire from dismemberment by Great Britain and other European powers. The Ali brothers who were more interested in Turkey and Islam than India, initiated the Movement. Its conferences were organized in several cities in northern India. The Central Khilafat Committee started a fund to help the nationalist movement in distant Turkey and to organize the Khilafat Movement at home.



Above: Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali 


Hardly anybody knows today that Mustafa Kemal, the first Turkish President was a Rothschild stooge. Even today Turkey’s army and banks is controlled by Jews Rothschild. This is why Zionist Bilderberg conferences are held in Turkey and Turkey is member of EU . Muhammad Ali jinnah opposed the Khilafat movement.  He was concerned about mixing religion and politics and he warned Mahatma Gandhi against side effects of his enthusiastic support for the same, to woo the Muslims.


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the first crypto-Muslim president of Turkey, used a Zionist deception ploy to eliminate the Islamic religious practice of wearing of a veil.  He could not ban the veil outright, which would incite anger among the people. So he made a law that all prostitutes had to wear the veil.

At the next session at Bombay in 1889, he was linked with other two leading freedom fighters Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The trio was popularly known as Lal-Bal-Pal. Lalaji was actively involved in struggle against partition of Bengal. During the struggle he galvanized Indians for a campaign of Swadeshi and was imprisoned for six months by the British for creating turmoil.


Lala  resolved that India should undertake the fight for freedom, the use of swadeshi articles made in India and boycott of foreign goods. He put forth these views at the 1907 Congress session held in Surat City.

Lalaji was promptly arrested on May 3, 1907 for creating "turmoil" in Rawalpindi. He was put in Mandalay jail Burma, along with Ajit Singh, a relative of Bhagat Singh, for six months and was released on November 11, 1907 due to protests in India fuelled by Lak Manya Bal Gangadhara Tilak's fiery columns in Kesari..


Lala went to Britain in April 1914 to explain the position of India. The same year general elections were being held in England. The Indian National Congress decided to send two representatives to acquaint the public with conditions in India. Lajpat Rai and Gopal Krishna Gokhale were selected. When they returned from their visit to England, thousands of people welcomed them at the Lahore railway station. Students unhitched the horses and they pulled the carriage.


 From Britain he travelled to USA to for promoting the cause of India’s freedom struggle. There he founded the India Home League Society of America.


He wrote a book called "Young India". The book severely indicted British rule in India and was banned in Britain and India even before it was published. He travelled to Japan and there he met Rash Behari Bose.


Lokamanya Tilak, Jinnah and Shrimati Annie Besant accorded a heroic welcome to him, when Lala returned to India in Feb 1920. Welcome Addresses were presented to him in Bombay, Delhi and Lahore. He was elected as the president of the special session of the Congress held in September 1920.

He formed the Congress Independence Party in protest against the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre , where 1600 rounds were fired by the British into a thick crowd of more than 20000, which included women and children, causing a stampede.. 120 bodies were pulled out of the well, without bullet injuries, such was the terror unleashed on 13th April 1919.

Below check out a video of the Martyr's well.


Sardar Udham Singh avenged this massacre on 13th March 1940 by putting two bullets into General Dyer, who lead the massacre , at Caxton hall in England.  On 31st July 1940 Udham Singh was hung in Pentonville prison, but not before he was merilessly tortured .. Udham Singh is known as the "Tiger of Punjab".  He survived the Jallianwala Bagh massacre,  and since he was a water bearer volunteer,  he gave several dying souls their last sip of water, reprogramming his DNA..



See picture above-- we are a grateful nation, right?

Lala Lajpat rai was elected President of the Congress party in the Calcutta Special Session of 1920.



Lajpat Rai's organizing ability and heroic speeches were inspiring. Government was finding it difficult to face the intense Non-cooperation Movement growing day by day. All over the country there were agitation and hartals and the rulers were shaken. Lalaji became a dangerous person in the eyes of the government. In December 1921 Lalaji was arrested. The other leaders of the movement, Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das were also imprisoned.

Lalaji was sentenced to 18 months' rigorous imprisonment. Because of the people's protest and the pleadings by lawyers he was released after two months. It was one o' clock in the night when he was released. When he came to the door , a free man , he was arrested again. He was tried for another offence and was sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for two years--just to break his spirit.


While in jail he was kept in poor conditions. He fell ill and his health deteriorated. When the public learnt this vigorous agitation was started throughout the country for his release. Government released him. Lalaji went to Solan to improve his health.

Lala was was elected to the legislative assembly on his release.

Lalaji went to Europe in 1927 to improve his health.

In 1927 the British Government wanted a report on political reforms in India and on amending the Government of India Act. So it appointed a commission. The commission consisted of Sir John Simon and six other members. All of them were members of the British Parliament. There was not a single Indian as member. It was composed solely of White people.



The commission was an insult to Indians. These White men were to shape the future of India. The people of India rose as one man against this step. Under Lalaji's leadership, it was resolved to boycott the Simon Commission. Hence the silent and peaceful protest at Lahore railway station.

Katherine Mayo, a foreign journalist, visited India-on invitation from British East India company owner Rothshilds.

American Mayo who studied at Rothschild's institutions in Boston, singled out the "rampant" and fatally weakening sexuality of its males to be at the core of all problems, leading to masturbation, rape, homosexuality, prostitution and venereal diseases and, most importantly, to too early sexual intercourse and premature maternity—yellow journalism at its worst. She found only filth and nauseating smell in Indian civilization, Indian culture , Hinduism and life

The film, Mother India, was created in response to Mayo's book. Her book was burned in India and New York, along with an effigy of its author. It was criticized by a distressed Mahatma Gandhi, who wrote in response:

"This book is cleverly and powerfully written. The carefully chosen quotations give it the false appearance of a truthful book. But the impression it leaves on my mind, is that it is the report of a drain inspector sent out with the one purpose of opening and examining the drains of the country to be reported upon, or to give a graphic description of the stench exuded by the opened drains. If Miss. Mayo had confessed that she had come to India merely to open out and examine the drains of India, there would perhaps be little to complain about her compilation. But she declared her abominable and patently wrong conclusion with a certain amount of triumph:”'the drains are India”.

 Mayo was chosen by Jew Rothschilds ( funded via their agent M Moyca Lewell who was also Mayo's lady life partner ) to white wash his international Opium trade and Slavery trade. She died a painful death after a long illness, divine retribution to this Anglo Saxon supremacist.



 The hit Bollywood movie Mother India was made to counter Mayo.

 I suggest somebody ask our Italian waitress and her "not so bright" son , who will support Italy in a volleyball match with India, who Lala Lajpat Rai is.  Recently her chamchas did an overdrive on TV by advertisements-- IT DOES NOT MATTER WHERE THEY CAME FROM.

Oh yeah?


Grace and peace!

  

CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL



..

Saturday, July 28, 2012

TUM MILE , CANT STOP LOVIN' YOU -- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL






Tum Mile (Love Reprise)


tu hi meri hai saari zameen 

you are my entire world 

chaahe kahin se chaloon… tujh pe hi aake rukoon. 

wherever i may be walking from… my destination is always you. 

tere siva, main jaoon kahan? 

without you, where do i go? 

koi bhi raah chunoon… tujhape hi aake rukoon. 

whichever path i may choose… my destination is always you. 

tum mile, to lamhein tham gaye 

now that you’re mine, these moments have frozen. 

tum mile, to saare gham gaye 

now that you’re mine, all my grief has disappeared. 

tum mile… to muskuraana aa gaya. 

now that you’re mine… i’ve learned to smile. 

tum mile, to jadoo chaa gaya. 

now that you’re mine, magic has taken over. 

tum mile, to jeena aa gaya 

now that you’re mine, i’ve learned how to live. 

tum mile… to maine paaya hai khuda 

now that you’re mine… i’ve attained god himself. 

ohh, tujh mein kinaara dikhe, dil ko sahaara dikhe. 

in you, i see my shore, and my heart’s support. 

aa meri dhadkan thaam le… 

come and feel my heartbeat… 

teri taraf hi mude… yeh saans tujhase jude 

steering only towards you, my breath is linked to you. 

har pal yeh tera naam le… 

for it takes your name all the time… 

tum mile, to ab kya hai kami. 

now that you’re mine, i don’t lack anything. 

tum mile, to duniya mil gayi. 

now that you’re mine, the world’s at my feet. 

tum mile… to mil gaya aasraa. 

now that you’re mine… i have found a shelter. 

tum mile, to jadoo chaa gaya. 

now that you’re mine, magic has taken over. 

tum mile, to jeena aa gaya 

now that you’re mine, i’ve learned how to live. 

tum mile… to maine paaya hai khuda 

now that you’re mine… i’ve attained god himself. 

din mere tujh se chale, raatein bhi tujh se dhale 

my days wax with you, my nights wane with you. 

hai waqt tere haath mein… 

my time is in your clasp… 

ohh tu hi shaher hai mera, tujh mein hi ghar hai mera. 

you are my only land, in you, i find my home. 

rehta hai tere saath mein… 

for i am always with you… 

tum mile, to mil gaya humsafar. 

now that you’re mine, i’ve found my soul companion. 

tum mile, to khud ki hai khabar. 

now that you’re mine, i am aware of myself. 

tum mile… to rishta sa ban gaya. 

now that you’re mine… I have a relationship . 

tum mile, to jadoo chaa gaya. 

now that you’re mine, magic has taken over. 

tum mile, to jeena aa gaya 

now that you’re mine, i’ve learned how to live. 

tum mile… to maine paaya hai khuda 

now that you’re mine… i’ve attained god himself.





Singer Javed Ali is part of AR Rahman’s world tours.  His voice and tone is excellent for mushy love songs.

Pritam Chakraborty (above ) is a leading Music director. He understands music.




CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
..

Thursday, July 26, 2012

CHEMICAL HAZARDS ON CHEMICAL TANKERS- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL



  CHEMICAL HAZARDS  ON CHEMICAL TANKERS-  CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL



 Personal Protective Equipment - The items listed are those recommended by (a) manufacturers, either in technical bulletins or in Material Safety Data Sheets, (b) the Chemical Manufacturers Association, or (c) the National Safety Council, for use by personnel while responding to fire or accidental discharge of the chemical.  They are intended to protect the lungs, eyes, and skin.  Safety showers and eyewash fountains are considered to be important protective equipment for the handling of almost all chemicals; they are not usually listed.



Symptoms Following Exposure - These are brief descriptions of the effects observed in humans when the vapor (gas) is inhaled, when the liquid or solid is ingested (swallowed), and when the liquid or solid comes in contact with the eyes or skin.



Treatment for Exposure - “First-aid” procedures are recommended.  They deal with exposure to the vapor (gas), liquid, or solid and include inhalation, ingestion (swallowing) and contact with eyes or skin.  The instruction “Do NOT induce vomiting” is given if an unusual hazard is associated with the chemical being sucked into the lungs (aspiration) while the patient is vomiting.  “Seek medical attention” or “Call a doctor” is recommended in those cases where only competent medical personnel can treat the injury properly.  In all cases of human exposure, seek medical assistance as soon as possible.



Threshold Limit ValueTime Weighted Average -The Threshold Limit Value Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) is usually expressed in units of parts per million (ppm) - i.e., the parts of vapor (gas) per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25oC (77oF) and one atmosphere pressure.  For a chemical that forms a fine mist or dust, the concentration is given in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3).  The TLV is defined as the concentration of the substance in air that can be breathed for five consecutive eight-hour workdays (40-hour work week) by most people without adverse effect (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air, Adopted by ACGIH”).  As some people become ill after exposure to concentrations lower than the TLV, this value cannot be used to define exactly what is a “safe” or “dangerous” concentration.



No entry appears when the chemical is a mixture; it is possible to calculate the TLV for a mixture only when the TLV for each component of the mixture is known and the composition of the mixture by weight is also known.



Threshold Limit Value - Short-Term Exposure Limits - The parts of vapor (gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25oC (77oF) and one atmosphere pressure is given.  The limits are given in milligrams per cubic meter for chemicals that can form a fine mist or dust.  The values given are the maximum permissible average exposures for the time periods specified.



Threshold Limit Value – Ceiling Value – The parts of vapor (gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25oC (77oF) and one atmosphere pressure is given.  The limits are given in milligrams per cubic meter for chemicals that can form a fine mist or dust.  The values given are for a concentration that is not to be exceeded at any time.



Toxicity by Ingestion - The Grade and corresponding LD50 value are those defined by the National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Hazardous Materials, “Evaluation of the Hazard of Bulk Water Transportation of Industrial Chemicals, A Tentative Guide,” Washington, D.C., 1972.  Data were also collected from other sources and converted to the appropriate Grade before entry in this manual.  The term LD50 signifies that about 50% of the animals given the specified dose by mouth will die.  Thus, for a Grade 4 chemical (below 50 mg/kg) the toxic dose for 50% of animals weighing 70 kg (150 lb) is 70 X 50 = 3500 mg = 3.5 g, or less than 1 teaspoonful; it might be as little as a few drops.  For a Grade 1 chemical (5 to 15g/k g), the LD50 would be between a pint and a quart for a 150-lb man.  All LD50 values have been obtained using small laboratory animals such as rodents, cats, and dogs.  The substantial risks taken in using these values for estimating human toxicity are the same as those taken when new drugs are administered to humans for the first time.



Toxicity by Inhalation – Similar to the Toxicity by Ingestion entry, except that the route of exposure is inhalation instead of ingestion.  Units and definition of units are the same.



Chronic Toxicity - Where there is evidence that the chemical can cause cancer, mutagenic effects, teratogenic effects, or a delayed injury to vital organs such as the liver or kidney, a qualitative description of the effect is given.



 Vapor (Gas) Irritant Characteristics - The most appropriate of five statements listed below is given.  Source:  National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Hazardous Materials, “Evaluation of the Hazard of Bulk Water Transportation of Industrial Chemicals, A Tentative Guide,” Washington, D.C.,1972.)



(1) Vapors are non irritating to eyes and throat.

(2) Vapors cause a slight smarting of the eyes or respiratory system if present in high concentrations.  The effect is temporary.

(3) Vapors cause moderate irritation such that personnel will find high concentrations unpleasant.  The effect is temporary.

(4) Vapors are moderately irritating such that personnel will not usually tolerate moderate or high concentrations.

(5) Vapors cause severe irritation of eyes and throat and can cause eye and lung injury.  They cannot be tolerated even at low concentrations.



Liquid or Solid Irritant Characteristics - The most appropriate of the following five statements is given (same source as 5.8 above):



(1) No appreciable hazard.  Practically harmless to the skin.

(2) Minimum hazard.  If spilled on clothing and allowed to remain, may cause smarting and reddening of skin.

(3) Causes smarting of the skin and first-degree burns on short exposure; may cause second-degree burns on long exposure.

(4) Fairly severe skin irritant.  May cause pain and second-degree burns after a few minutes' contact.

(5) Severe skin irritant.  Causes second- and third-degree burns on short contact and is very injurious to the eyes.



Odor Threshold - This is the lowest concentration in air that most humans can detect by smell.  The value cannot be relied on to prevent over-exposure, because human sensitivity to odors varies over wide limits, some chemicals cannot be smelled at toxic concentrations, odors can be masked by other odors, and some compounds rapidly deaden the sense of smell.



IDLH Value - The Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Value - This concentration represents a maximum level from which one could escape within 30 minutes without any escape-impairing symptoms or any irreversible healtheffects.  The concentrations are reported in either parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3).



OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit – Time Weighted Average – Similar to the definition of the TLV-TWA above, except that this limit has been promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Agency.



OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit – Short Term Exposure Limit – Similar to the definition of the TVL-STEL above, except that this limit has been promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Agency.



OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit – Ceiling – Similar to the definition of the TVL-Ceiling above, except that this limit has been promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Agency.



EPA AEGL – Acute Exposure Guideline information from the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific compound listed in the manual.



Transportation of bulk chemicals do not only require special hardware, but also special crew training, both theoretical and practical, in order for them to understand the characteristics of the various chemicals and be aware of the potential hazards involved in handling them.



Detailed hazards of particular substances are provided in MSDS and in publications such as the, ICS Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals). The purpose of the following is to provide broad guidance on these hazards, particularly those impacting on health.
 
 
General Hazards:


Chemical cargoes may present a fire hazard which will be determined by the flashpoint, boiling point, flammability limits and auto-ignition temperature of the product. The marine pollution hazard will be dependent on several factors that include bioaccumulation and the attendant risk to aquatic life or human health or causing tainting to seafood. In addition, release into the marine environment may cause damage to living resources, hazard to human health and consequent reduction of amenities.



The air pollution hazard posed by release into the atmosphere may be categorised by the emergency exposure limit (EEL) of the substance.



Health Hazards:



Most of the chemicals present more than one hazard to health, for example, it may:



• Be corrosive.

• Be poisonous.

• Produce toxic vapours.

• Pose an asphyxiation hazard.

• Result in long-term damage to eyes or the nervous system.

• Have long-term carcinogenic effects.



Toxicity:



Toxicity may be described as the ability of a substance to cause damage to living tissue, impairment of the central nervous system, severe illness or, in extreme cases, death when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed by the skin. The amounts required to produce these results vary widely with the nature of the substance and the time of exposure to it. Toxicity is divided into two main groups; “acute” which refers to exposure of a short duration, i.e. a single brief exposure, and the “chronic” toxicity refers to exposure of long duration, i.e. repeated or prolonged exposures. Toxicity is objectively evaluated on the basis of test dosages made on experimental animals under controlled conditions.



Prevention from exposures is achieved by a combination of preventing toxic fumes or liquid from contaminating the workplace and the use of Personal Protective Equipment.



Asphyxia:



Asphyxia can be described as a condition caused by lack of air (oxygen) i.e. suffocation. Any vapour may cause asphyxiation, whether toxic or not. Danger areas are cargo tanks, void spaces, double bottoms, pump rooms, peaks etc. and before entering these spaces The Company’s Enclosed Space Entry procedures must be observed.



Anesthesia:



Certain vapours have an anesthetic effect and may cause loss of consciousness due to its effect on the nervous system. Anesthetic vapours could be both toxic and non toxic.



Exposure:



Exposure may be either acute or chronic. With acute exposure, the victim is subjected to a one-off high level dose and the symptoms are usually immediately apparent, although there can be a delayed reaction. The damage caused may be irreversible, even with treatment.



Chronic exposure is associated with a relatively low level of exposure over a period of time. Symptoms may not be apparent until many years later, which in some cases, could be over 30 years after exposure ceases.



Exposure to the product may be by inhalation, skin absorption or ingestion. Inhalation of vapour or mist is by far the most likely route for harmful substances to enter the body.



The effect of exposure will depend upon the toxicity of the vapour, the level of contamination and the volatility of the product. Exposure to the vapour may cause a variety of effects that could include systemic poisoning, irritation of the nose, throat and respiratory system and even asphyxiation.



Absorption may be directly through skin contact and any physical injuries, such as cuts or abrasions, will serve to increase the absorption rate. Exposure may cause skin irritation which, in its mildest form may result in dermatitis, and systematic effects.



Ingestion may be caused, for example, by accidentally swallowing a chemical when splashed by it. Some liquids have corrosive properties such that if they come into contact with the skin, they may completely or partly destroy living tissue, causing acute pain. Others, although only causing slight skin irritation at the outset, can eventually result in severe damage to the eyes and other mucous membranes.



Respiratory Protection:



There are various types of respiratory protection equipment available, ranging from simple dust masks to more complex types of masks. It is essential that the correct type of mask is worn for the specific task to be carried out.



Note that respirators do not protect the user in an oxygen deficient atmosphere and they do not necessarily protect against all gases that may exist on a ship. Some types of respirator (filter canister type masks) are designed to protect from specific chemicals and are used sometimes in the petro-chemical industry ashore. However, these are not suitable for ship use and prohibited onboard Company vessels.

The only sure way that you can guarantee the air you are breathing is safe, is to use a compressed air breathing apparatus set filled by a dedicated compressor with a clean air certificate.



Filter masks should be used only in areas where the air contains at least 20% by volume of oxygen.



It is also important to understand that a filter mask alone will not give adequate protection. It shall be noted that a chemical may be both toxic and explosive/flammable.



Threshold Limit Value (TLV):


TLV refers to the maximum concentration of gases, vapours, mist or sprays to which it is believed that nearly all persons may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effects. TLV is stated as Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and Ceiling (TLV-C): usually expressed in parts per million (ppm). Refer to ISGOTT for more details.



Flammability:



Vapour given off by a flammable liquid will burn when ignited provided it is mixed with certain proportions of air. If the vapour mixture is too lean or too rich it will not burn. The range in which it will burn is called the flammable range, and the limits are called the lower flammable limits (LFL) and the upper flammable limits (UFL). See definitions carried in Section 1 of these operating instructions for further details.



A flammable vapour also needs Oxygen in order to burn, typically in excess of 11 percent for hydrocarbon vapours. In addition a flammable liquid must be at a temperature high enough to give off sufficient vapour in order to ignite (the Flash Point). For the purpose of safe handling procedures, the flammability characteristics of various products are divided into three broad categories:



Flammable cargoes------------ flash point not exceeding 60°C

Combustible cargoes-----------flash point exceeding 60°C

Non-combustible cargoes------cargoes which have no flash point

Reactivity:



Chemicals may react in a number of ways; with water, with itself, with air, with other chemicals or with other materials.

Self-reaction

The most common form of self-reaction is polymerisation. Polymerisation may be a slow natural process which only degrades the product without posing any safety hazards, or it may be a rapid exothermic reaction with a large amount of heat build-up and gases evolved. Such a reaction is called a run-off polymerisation and poses a serious danger to both the ship and its personnel.

Products that are self-reactive are inhibited with a stabiliser to prevent self-reaction. The action to be taken in case of a polymerisation situation should be covered by the ship’s emergency/contingency plan.



           Reaction with water



Certain cargoes react with water, most noticeable the isocyanates, in a way that could pose a danger to both the ship and its personnel. These cargoes are carried under inert condition, see chapter 9 in the IBC code. Other cargoes react with water in a slow way that poses no safety hazards, but the reaction could cause chemicals that may damage equipment and/or tank materials.



           Reaction with air



Certain cargoes may react with air to form unstable oxygen compounds (peroxides) which, when allowed to build up, could cause an explosion. Such cargoes are either inhibited by an anti-oxidant and/or carried under inert condition.



           Reaction with other cargoes



Certain cargoes react dangerously with one another. Such cargoes should be stowed away from each other (not adjacent) and prevented from mixing by using separate cargo and vent lines.



The master must ensure that cargoes stowed adjacent to each other are compatible, and should consult the USCG CHRIS compatibility guide (Section 16) prior to loading.



Reaction with other materials:



The materials of construction must be compatible with the cargo to be carried. Some materials may react with the product and trigger a self- reaction within the product, some alloys will react in a non hazardous way, but render the product unusable or in case of an edible product, inedible. See the IBC code.



Corrositivity:



Acids, anhydrides and alkalis are among the most common carried corrosive substances. They can rapidly destroy human tissue and cause irreparable damage. They can also corrode normal construction materials, and create a safety hazard to the ship. Acids in particular react with most metals evolving hydrogen gas, which is highly flammable. As to suitable materials of construction see IBC code.



Handling of these substances should only be done wearing suitable Personal Protective Equipment.



Putrefaction:



Most animal and vegetable oils undergo decomposition, this process, known as putrefaction, generates obnoxious and toxic vapours and deplete the oxygen in the tank. Tanks that have contained such product must be properly ventilated and the atmosphere tested prior to tank entry. This is especially important prior sending personnel into the tank for sweeping purposes.



Strict compliance with the tank entry procedures will apply.


Coconut and Vegetable Oils: 

In addition to putrefaction, the above types of oil can have hazards associated with the production of Carbon Monoxide (CO). These dangers are heightened during heating and the final stages of discharge when CO levels have been known to reach in excess of 3,000ppm. As a result, it is essential that before entering a tank for either “squeezing” the last remaining cargo or for tank cleaning that the following precautions are taken.



The atmosphere of the tanks is monitored regularly throughout discharge for the presence of CO. Temperatures should also be taken as excessive temperatures will assist in the production of CO.



The eight-hour safe exposure limit for CO is given as ,  30PPM  although short-term exposure (15 minutes) of up to 200ppm can be allowed under exceptional circumstances. CO is toxic by inhalation and can cause serious damage to heath. Accordingly, a meter, capable of measuring these limits, must be on board. Full enclosed space entry procedures as detailed in the SEM must also be followed with additional checks made for CO. Failure to follow these precautions may result in fatalities.



CHEMICAL REACTIVITY



Reactivity with Water - The term “No reaction” means that no hazard results when the chemical reacts or mixes with water.  Where a hazard does result, it is described.



Reactivity with Common Materials - This is limited to hazardous reactions with fuels and with common materials of construction such as metal, wood, plastics, cement, and glass.  The nature of the hazard, such as severe corrosion or formation of a flammable gas, is described.



Stability During Transport - The term “Stable” means that the chemical will not decompose in a hazardous manner under the conditions of temperature, pressure, and mechanical shock that are normally encountered during shipment; the term does not apply to fire situations.  Where there is a possibility of hazardous decomposition, an indication of the conditions and the nature of the hazard is given.



Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics - In all cases involving accidental discharge, dilution with water may be followed by use of the agent specified, particularly if the material cannot be flushed away; the agent specified need not necessarily be used.



Polymerization - A few chemicals can undergo rapid polymerization to form sticky, resinous materials, with the liberation of much heat.  The containers may explode.  For these chemicals the conditions under which the reaction can occur are given. 



Inhibitor of Polymerization - The chemical names and concentrations of inhibitors added by the manufacturer to prevent polymerization are given.





              WATER POLLUTION



Aquatic Toxicity - The form of data presentation used by the Environmental Protection Agency's “Oil and Hazardous Material-Technical Assistance Data System (OHM-TADS)” is used here.  Reading from left to right and separated by slashes (/) are the following data:

 Concentration in parts per million by weight (or milligrams per liter) at which the chemical was tested;

Time of exposure in hours;

Name of the aquatic species studied;

Effect observed; LC50 means that approximately 50% of the fish will die under the conditions of concentrations and time given.  TLm (Median Tolerance Limit) means that approximately 50% of the fish will show abnormal behavior (including death) under the conditions of concentrations and time given; the term EC50 (Effective Concentration50) is used sometimes instead of TLm;

The kind of water used in the test (fresh or salt)


Some chemicals have been tested with many species of fish.  Where the data were available, the
data sheet cites one illustrative test in fresh water and one in salt water.



Waterfowl Toxicity - Very little information is available.  In a few cases there is entered the LD50 value, which indicates the dose (in milligrams per kilogram of body weight) that is lethal to about half the waterfowl tested.



Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) - Also called “biochemical oxygen demand,” this is a standard way of describing how much oxygen dissolved in water is consumed by biological oxidation of the chemical during the stated period of time.  The unit lb/lb indicates the pounds of oxygen consumed by each pound of chemical during the time stated.  When given in percent, the values indicate the pounds of oxygen consumed by each 100 pounds of chemical during the time stated.  If the percentage is followed by “(theor.)”, it indicates the pounds of oxygen theoretically required to completely oxidize 100 pounds of the chemical.



Food Chain Concentration Potential - If the chemical is consumed by fish, marine plants, waterfowl, etc., that are in turn eaten by other species, the substance may accumulate and ultimately be consumed by humans.  Where this occurs, an indication of the potential hazard and its significance is given.



GESAMP Hazard Profile – A composite list of hazard profiles evaluated by the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP).  A summary of the legends used in the profile follows.



Bioaccumulation and Tainting



+          Bioaccumulated to significant extent and known to produce a hazard to  aquatic life or human health.



Z          Bioaccumulated with attendant risk to aquatic organisms or human health, however, with short retention of the order of one week or less.



T          Liable to produce tainting of seafood.



 No evidence to support one of the above ratings (+, Z, T)



5          Damage to Living Resources,  Extremely toxic 96 hr LC50 less than 0.01 mg/l

4          Highly toxic    less than 1 mg/l

3          Moderately toxic         1-10 mg/l

2          Slightly toxic   10-100 mg/l

1          Practically nontoxic    100-1000 mg/l

0          Non-hazardous            greater than 1000 mg/l

D         Substance likely to blanket the sea-bed         


BOD   Substance with oxygen demand        

  

Hazard to Human Health by Oral Intake       LD50
 

4          Highly hazardous        less than 5 mg/kg

3          Moderately hazardous            5-50 mg/kg

2          Slightly hazardous      50-500 mg/kg

1          Practically non-hazardous       500-5000 mg/kg

0          Non-hazardous            greater than 5000 mg/kg

  

Hazard to Human Health by Skin and Eye Contact or Inhalation


II         Hazardous (severe irritation, strong sensitizer, lung injury, percutaneous toxicity, carcinogenic, or other specific long-term adverse health effect.



I           Slightly hazardous (mild irritation, weak sensitizer)  Non-hazardous (non-irritant, not a sensitizer)



Reduction of Amenities



XXX   Highly objectionable because of persistency, smell or poisonous or irritant characteristics; as a result contaminated beaches liable to be closed; also used when there is clear evidence that the substance is a human carcinogen or that the substance has the potential to produce other serious specific long-term adverse health effects in humans.



XX      Moderately objectionable because of the above characteristics, but short-term effects leading only to temporary interference with use of beaches; also used when there is credible scientific evidence that the substance is an animal carcinogen but where there is no clear evidence to indicate that the material has caused cancer in humans, or when there is evidence from laboratory studies that the substance could have the potential to produce other serious specific long-term adverse health effects.



X         Slightly objectionable, non-interference with use of beaches.No problem.



Ratings in brackets, ( ), indicate insufficient data available to the GESAMP experts on specific substances, hence extrapolation was required. N – Not applicable (e.g. if gases) Indicates data were not available to the GESAMP Working Group.



               SHIPPING INFORMATION



Grades or Purity - The grades USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) and CP (chemically pure) are quite pure.  Where “Technical” or “Commercial” grades are given, the percent by weight of the pure chemical present is usually indicated.

In a few cases the identity of the major impurities is given.  If the properties of the less pure grades differ significantly from those of the pure substance, the differences in properties are described in general terms.



Storage Temperature - The range of temperatures at which the chemical is normally shipped in bulk by water transport is given.  “Ambient” means the temperature of the surroundings.



Inert Atmosphere - The terms used are “inerted,” “padded,” “ventilated (forced),” “ventilated (natural),” and “no requirement.” They are given when found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 46, beginning in Part 151.05.



IMO Pollution Category – pollution classification applied to this compound by the International Maritime Organization.



Ship Type – The data entry refers to construction and containment requirements for ships being used to transport the chemical in question.  The information is taken from the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 46, Part 154.

                         

            CHEMICAL FIRE HAZARDS



Flash Point - This is defined as the lowest temperature at which vapors above a volatile combustible substance will ignite in air when exposed to a flame.  Depending on the test method used, the values given are either Tag closed cup (C.C.) (ASTM D56) or Cleveland open cup (O.C.) (ASTM D93).  The values,  give an indication of the relative flammability of the chemical.  In general, the open cup value is about 10o to 15oF higher than the closed cup value.



Flammable Limits in Air - The percent concentration in air (by volume) is given for the lower (LFL) and upper (UFL) limit.  The values, give an indication of the relative flammability of the chemical.  The limits are sometimes referred to as “lower explosive limit” (LEL) and “upper explosive limit” (UEL).



Fire Extinguishing Agents Not to be Used - The agents listed must not be used because they react with the chemical and create an additional hazard.  In some cases they are listed because they are ineffective in putting out the fire.



Special Hazards of Combustion Products - Some chemicals decompose or burn to give off toxic and irritating gases.  Such gases may also be given off by chemicals that vaporize in the heat of a fire without either decomposing or burning.  If no entry appears, the combustion products are thought to be similar to those formed by the burning of oil, gasoline, or alcohol; they include carbon monoxide (poisonous), carbon dioxide, and water vapor.  The specific combustion products are usually not well known over the wide variety of conditions existing in fires; some may be hazardous.



Behavior in Fire - Any characteristic behavior that might increase significantly the hazard involved in a fire is described.  The formation of dense smoke or flammable vapor clouds, and the possibility of polymerization and explosions is stated.  Unusual difficulty in extinguishing the fire is also noted.



Ignition Temperature - This is the minimum temperature at which the material will ignite without a spark or flame being present.  It gives an indication of the relative flammability of the chemical.  It is sometimes called the “autoignition temperature.”



Electrical Hazard - The ease with which the chemical is ignited by electrical equipment is indicated by the Group and Class assignment made in the National Fire Protection Association, “Hazardous Chemicals Data,” Boston, Mass., 1994 and in “Classification of Gases, Liquids, and Volatile Solids Relative to Explosion-Proof Electrical Equipment,” National Academy of Sciences, 1982.  This information is available for relatively few chemicals, so an absence of data does not necessarily mean that the substance is not hazardous in the presence of electrical equipment.



Burning Rate - The value is the rate (in millimeters per minute) at which the depth of a pool of liquid decreases as the liquid burns. 



Adiabatic Flame Temperature - The value is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit of the flame when the material is burned under adiabatic conditions.



Stoichiometric Air to Fuel Ratio - The value is the ratio of air to the compound in question required for stoichiometric combustion.  Since it is a ratio, the value is dimensionless.



Flame Temperature - The value is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit of the flame produced by burning the compound under stoichiometric conditions without any rate controls.



Molar Ratio (Reactant to Product) – The number of moles of products formed, assuming complete combustion of a single mole of the chemical reactant.  These ratios were calculated assuming there was sufficient oxygen available and that combustion did, in fact, go to completion.



Minimum Oxygen Concentration for Combustion (MOCC) – Information from NFPA-69 regarding the minimum percentage of oxygen required to support combustion of the subject compound.  The results are reported for oxygen diluted with nitrogen (N2) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2).



CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL

29 years in command