Sunday, June 6, 2010

BIODIESELS AND BIOFUELS ON CHEMICAL TANKERS-- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL





FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS (FAME )--  BIODIESELS – BIOFUELS— BLENDING ON BOARD CHEMICAL TANKERS — ANNEX 1 AND ANNEX 2  MARPOL CLASSIFICATIONS — ODMCS SUITABILITY 

Any fuel made from a renewable biological source is considered a biofuel--- unlike other natural resources such as petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels.

The term "biofuel" encompasses a diverse range of products such as biogas, biodiesel (methyl ester of vegetable oils) and bio-ethanol, and also includes ethanol, and methanol.  Liquid biofuels are mainly developed as a vehicle fuel.

Chemical tanker officers must be familiar with BIODIESEL , as carriage of this cargo on chemical tankers will soon be commonplace. Biodiesel is a generic name for fuels obtained by trans –esterification of a veg oil or animal fat.
There is no need for your COF to list the individual vegetable grades like Rapeseed FAME, Soya Bean FAME , Palm oil FAME etc.

Fatty Acid Methyl Esters have now been accepted as a generic term for the carriage of Biodiesel under the revised  MARPOL Annex II, provided they are derived from vegetable oils already found in the IBC Code under Ch 17, Marpol Pollution Category Y and Ship Type 2, -- there is no footnote (k) to allow carriage in double hulled type 3 ships.

Ethanol and Butanol appear in Ch 18 of the IBC code with MARPOL pollution category Z, meaning that they do not require to be carried in chemical tankers, but tanks used to carry the product must be capable to be stripped to the appriopriate level. 

Proposals in respect of the carriage of blends of Biodiesel/ mineral diesel and Bio-alcohol/ Gasoline are on the anvil.

Biodiesel is a light to dark yellow liquid. It is inmixible in water and has high BP and low VP.  It has a FP of around 150 deg C, making it rather inflammable. It has a SG of around 0.8.

FAME is acceptable previous cargo for shipment of edible oils and fats.  On 1st Jan 2008, FOSFA has included  “ fatty acid esters--  mono-alkyl esyers of fatty acids produced by the reaction of oils and fats and fatty acids with an alcohol”  in the acceptable list.

NIOP included in acceptable list, “ palm oil fatty acid methyl esters” and “ coconut oil fatty acid methyl esters “ and “ FAME.

The EU list includes in the acceptable list FAME ( Methyl - laurate/ palmitate/ stearate/ oleate )
Methyl esters in the range of C8 to C18 are practically non-toxic. It is mild to human skin and eye.

FAME is readily cleaned from ships tanks. Some detergent must be used, as it is insoluble in water. They have lower viscosity than the corresponding oils they are derived from. They are liquid at ambient temperature. It can be regarded as a clean product. It  presents no problems with regard to softening or absorption into tank coatings or with odour.

FAME derived from Palm/ Tallow/ Laurics must be carried at 25to 30 deg C range and discharged at 30 degC to 40 deg C range.

Bio-alcohol is also called Butanol. It is alcohol obtained from biological sources like sugar or corn. It is mixed with gasoline in USA and called Gasohol.

Band 1:  75% or more petroleum oil and balance Biofuel
-- Product classified as an Annex I cargo
-- ODME approved/certified for mixture carried or tank residues and all tank washings pumped ashore
Band 2: More than 1% but less than 75% petroleum oil
-- Product is classified as an Annex II cargo
-- Cargo treated as Pollution Category X, Ship Type 2 with carriage requirements based on the generic entry defined for the biofuel blend concerned
Band 3:  1% or less petroleum oil and rest Biofuel
-- Product is carried as the Annex II product

IMO in List 2 of MEPC.2/Circ.15   --Jatropha oil is now listed in IBC code and can be carried as FAME as Cat Y Type 2.
“Renewable diesel” is entered as  “Alkanes (C10C26) linear and branched” as Cat Y  in Type 3 ships.

Rapeseed FAME is listed in MEPC.2/ Circ List 1. --- Palm oil and Coconut oil FAME is in IBC chapter 18.

When Rudolf Diesel designed his prototype diesel engine nearly a century ago, he ran it on peanut oil. But when petroleum-based diesel fuel hit the marketplace, it was cheap, reasonably efficient, and readily available, and therefore quickly became the diesel fuel of choice. Now, fuel shortages has prompted action in development of Biodiesel as an alternative to petroleum diesel.

Biodiesel made from animal fat or vegetable oil works just like petroleum diesel, but with far lower toxic air emissions. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced through esterification from a variety of Vegetable oils, including Rapeseed oil, Soyabean oil, Sunflower oil and Palm oil. The more widely used are Rape Methyl Ester [RME] in Europe and Soyabean Methyl Ester [SME] in the US. Both are collectively known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters [FAME].

These Biodiesel fuels are less stable than mineral oil [fossil] derived diesel fuels, with their more well known property being their 'biodegradability' in the event of accidental spillage or leakage.

The calorific value for Rapeseed FAME is 38 MJ/kg and Soya FAME is 32 . Fuel ageing is accelerated in the presence of metal ions, water, heat,--they can get oxidized or polymerized.


In Argentina they are very finicky about condensation water on ceiling prior loading--ridiculous indeed! 

Free water in FAME can cause hydrolysis and bacterial growth.  Ageing can cause polymerisation products on hot bulkheads. So do not try to load Jet fuel after Biodiesel in a SS tank without proper washing or an intermediate solvent like Gasoil.

Bio-ethanol is a readily available, clean fuel that can be utilised in combustion engines in different ways:
Anhydrous (or dehydrated) ethanol is free of water and at least 99% pure. This ethanol can be blended with conventional fuel in proportions up to 85% (E85). Blends up to 20% can be used in modern engines without modification. Traditionally, methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) or ethanol has been added as an oxygenate to gasoline at 6-10% blend for a cleaner burn. As the use of MTBE has been banned by a growing number of states, the U.S. ethanol market has grown from 2.3 to 4 billion gallons in the last three years.

Blending on board can be only done in PORT---provided--
– both component products come from the shore facility.
– one product comes from the shore facility and the other product is already on board.
– one product comes from the shore facility and the other product is delivered from a barge/coaster moored alongside the vessel at berth.
– one product is delivered from a barge/coaster moored alongside the vessel while at berth and the other product is already on board.
– load on top (with components being loaded into the same tank)
– blending where products are moved from different tanks within a ship in order to generate a mixture

If the components are to be loaded at different ports, then vessel required to hold certification for the first individual component loaded, as well as the finished product .

In other words, an oil tanker would be able to load, e.g. Diesel at the first port and then sail to a second port to load a FAME component, but would not be able to load FAME and then top up at a second port with Diesel.

Blending refers to the process whereby the ship’s cargo pumps and pipelines are used to internally circulate two or more different cargoes within the ship with the intent to achieve a cargo with a different product designation. This does NOT   preclude the master from undertaking cargo transfers for the safety of the ship or protection of the marine environment.

Ensure your ODMCS is certified to handle the Annex 1 blend .

ALWAYS TAKE WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS AND QUALITY CERTIFICATES FOR BIOFUELS AND BIODIESELS FOR PURPOSES OF MARPOL PREWASH/TANKCLEANING/ BLENDING   — ( IGNORANT OR VESTED INTERESTS WOULD RATHER HAVE YOUR SHIP FINED , THAN SPEND MONEY ON COSTLY PREWASH) --  LEST YOUR SHIP IS FINED FOR  NON COMPLIANCE AND WRONG ENTRIES IN OIL RECORD BOOK.  DON’T TAKE ANYTHING FOR GRANTED.

CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL ( 28 years in command )
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5 comments:

  1. hi captain ji

    Govt. allows private manufacturers to sell bio-diesel directly to consumers , is this good or bad for the country.

    http://www.firstpost.com/business/govt-allows-private-manufacturers-sell-bio-diesel-directly-consumers-2050537.html

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. hi rkvj,

      NOTHING IS MORE DAMAGING TO THE NATION.

      FOOD WILL BE SACRIFICED FOR MONET SPINNING FUEL.

      WHEN FOOD IS SHORT, GM COMPANIES WILL GIVE STERILE / TERMINATION SEEDS ARE THEN WE ARE IN THEIR HOOKS FOREVER.

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2012/05/monsanto-and-farmer-suicides-in-india.html

      MODI IS SO FULL OF HIS GUJARAT MODEL-- HE WILL NOT UNDERSTAND ALL THIS.

      KURSI MAANGHTA HAI NA?

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      Delete
  2. Dear Captain,

    Greetings.
    In your latest blog on Putin, the comments are 'not loading' properly.
    Although we can click 'Load more' for 5-6 times and see the comments successfully, later the comments do not get loaded.

    Is there something you can do to fix this.

    Grace & Peace,
    JTA

    ReplyDelete
  3. Dear Capt,

    Understand that we can load FAME to a vessel that we used also carrying CPO or SPOB which vessel has specially designed to carry CPO

    Thanks and regards,
    Indra Khresna

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2010/12/certificate-of-fitness-on-chemical.html

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