Friday, July 22, 2016

















Respected Ajit Sir,

I would like to thank and express my gratitude to you for the work you have been doing for last 6-7 yrs.
I was introduced to your blogs by one of my friends and I am very much thankful to that guy as well.
I find your blogs very informative. Sometimes I also wonder about your source of great level of information and knowledge. But then I think it must be your 4 decades of experience at sea which is paying you off(I might be wrong in this judgement).
The great thing about your blogs is that while reading them my inner conscience asks me to believe their content.
Hence, whatever I am writing below is the voice of my inner conscience.

Since my childhood, I have been a staunch believer of Hinduism. I have read your blogs on Sanatana Dharama. Your blog series on Sanatana Dharam is truly a masterpiece of your writings.
Sir, I try to understand them deeply but somehow can get merely 2%-3% of what you write.
This must be due to my pea-brained level of understanding and the magnificence of this ultimate and the great concept which we know by the name of Sanatana.
But only 2%-3% of this understanding has developed in me an amazing feeling of great pride in being a Hindu and an Indian.
And this feeling is so strong that it would never ever fade away. I am VERY GRATEFUL to you for this.
I am proud to be born in a country whose culture is the greatest and richest on this planet. All our maharishis and sages were great scientists and masters of meditation. Their contribution to this country and society can never be matched.
My endeavour is to take my understanding of Sanatana Dharam to a much higher level. I would be very thankful if you can guide me with few ways in which I can do that.









    capt ajit vadakayil


Vande Gurunam Charanaravinde
Sandarshita Svatma Sukava Bodhe
Nih Sreyase Jangalikayamane
Samsara Halahala Mohashantyai

Abahu Purushakaram
Shankhacakrsi Dharinam
Sahasra Sirasam Svetam
Pranamami Patanjalim



I bow to the lotus feet of the Supreme Guru
which awaken insight into the happiness of pure Being,
which are the refuge, the jungle physician,
which eliminate the delusion caused by the poisonous herb of Samsara (conditioned existence).

I prostrate before the sage Patanjali
who has thousands of radiant, white heads (as the divine serpent, Ananta)
and who has, as far as his arms, assumed the form of a man
holding a conch shell (divine sound), a wheel (discus of light or infinite time) and a sword (discrimination).



Svasthi Praja Bhyaha Pari Pala Yantam
Nya Yena Margena Mahim Mahishaha
Go Brahmanebhyaha Shubamastu Nityam
Lokah Samastah Sukhino Bhavantu
Om Shanti Shanti Shantihi


May the rulers of the earth keep to the path of virtue
For protecting the welfare of all generations.
May the religious, and all peoples be forever blessed,
May all beings everywhere be happy and free
OM peace, peace,  peace

2.16 —  heyan duhkham anagatam

The grief which has not yet come may be avoided.

Past pain is over.  The pain being  experienced in the present cannot be avoided, but can be minimised to some extent by yogic practice and discriminative knowledge. Unknown future pains can be forestalled by cohering to yogic discipline now. Man is the only living creature who can control or change his life. He is not a slave to his surroundings or at the mercy of nature. There is nothing that wastes the body and mind like worry. Worries are more about yesterday and tomorrow. Don’t take tomorrow to bed with you.  There is a difference between planning and worrying. Planning is constructive, worry is destructive. The best time to solve a problem is as soon at it happens.Man has 3 sides to his nature –body, mind and spirit . A proper balance between the 3 is desired. If any of the 3 is undeveloped he will suffer in life. Without spiritual development , man is without love or positive emotions ( affection, care, respect, sympathy ) .  Without positive emotions man cant be happy. A wise man can live in peace with things he cannot change. Never try to do things you cant. What is the point in teaching a donkey to sing. It is a sheer waste of time and effort. Nature follows the law, use it or lose it. Make most of the best and least of the worst. Man alone is the architect of his destiny.  Inaction is worse than no action at all.Patanjali says that yoga is a preventive healing art, science and philosophy, by which one builds up robust healthy conditions in body and mind and constructs a protective strength with which to ward off or counteract afflictions that are as yet unperceived afflictions. Moreover, strong health and a stable mind will facilitate one to face the wonder of wonders - the spiritual bliss - if and when, thanks to the good actions in former lives, the spiritual gate is set open. According to the yogis, death doesn’t solve your problem any more than night fall solves your financial problems. Yogis claim that knowledge, bliss and Enlightenment can be attained here and now while still in this physical body.  This is attained by following a definite scientific approach which has been verified by the experience of innumerable yogis, saints and sages through the ages. Future suffering has its seeds in the present and the past. It is only through liberation that future suffering can be fully eliminated. Avidya (ignorance) which is at the root of all the kleshas that cause suffering. So, our objective in eliminating future suffering would be to uproot Avidya.  Faith and trust are the seeds which bring the sweet fruits of success. Faith is about “ can do”  think “ it is possible”  it gives you new energy. Will power is the decision to carry on the fight. Self esteem is required to make a person mentally healthy.  Faith is the bird which sings when the dawn is still dark. A mentally healthy person learns to evaluate himself , his own performance and behaviour. To be successful you must be exited about life. Life is a festival only to those who live with enthusiasm.   If you want peace you must be prepared for war—NOT sit like an idiot and spin the charkha .  Only a moron will  start digging a well, when he gets thirsty. It is not enough to aim, you must hit. Failure to hit the bulls eye is never the fault of the target. You have to choose your own goal, at the same time follow social norms. Belief in predetermined destiny is the only refuge of weak minds. Take responsibility for your failures. Laughter is the cheapest luxury, it electrifies the nerves and cleanses the system. Prayer renews our internal strength during rough weather. A prayer is to the soul what air is to the lungs. Yoga helps you to  forget useless things. To remember everything is to make your mind a dustbin.  There is NO medicine for jealousy except yoga. Jealousy is poison for the soul.   Yoga teached you that the greatest wealth is contentment with little. It consists in simple wants. Too much glamour is like too much spices. It harms. The blatant display of status symbols  is the result of low self esteem. The self confident person can afford to project a modest image. The purpose of life is not only to be happy, but also to be creative , productive and useful—to make a difference that you lived at all on this planet.  There is no experience better for the heart than to reach down and lift people. Only people with inferiority complex wants to impress others. Do not go around copying others signatures .There is no need to keep up with the Joneses. . All imitations are plastic. There is great joy in being ordinary.  Yoga helps you to eliminate the needless wants of life. As you can see yoga is NOT a physical exercise. You have succeeded in life when all you really want is only what you really need.  Never fall into the same hole twice. The first fall can be deemed as experience. Only what you experience is yours. If you have to look into the rear view mirror of life, just make it a darting glance. Do NOT dwell on it.  Yoga teaches that truth blossoms only in individual freedom. It can never happen to a crowd. If you surrender your freedom and individuality big brother and the society will give you great posts and respectability. Dare to be who you are. No order is higher than your own intelligence. You must allow life its freedom. All perfectionism is a deep ego trip. Most of your pain is self chosen. Creating guilt in you is the oldest trick of all religions.  Sanatana Dharma offers hope, not guilt—unlike the single holy book religions..

2.17 —  drashtridrishyayoh sanyogo heyahetuh

The cause of pain is the association or identification of the seer (atmi) with the seen (prakrti) and the remedy lies in their dissociation.

A prudent person notices that inner harmony is interrupted when the mind lets itself be lured into indiscriminately sampling the world of phenomena.  He tries to remain free by avoiding material attachment, in which objects attract the intelligence like a magnet and the self is tempted into an illusory relationship with the external, seen world, provoking pleasures and pains. The intelligence is the vehicle closest to the soul, which must be cautious of its influence if the seer is to stay free. Or else, intelligence entangles the seer into a painful relationship with external objects. As long as intelligence is indiscriminating, there is suffering. The moment it develops discriminative power, it realises its source, and unites with the seer. Then there is transparency between the seer and seen, allowing free, uncontaminated passage between them. The seat of the ego or small self is the seat of the brain, and the seat of the great Self is within the spiritual heart. Though intelligence links the head and the heart, it vacillates between the two. This vacillation stops through right knowledge and understanding. Intelligence is then transformed - free from polarity, pure and unbiased. This is true meditation, in which ego dissolves, allowing the great Self (purusa) to glimmer in its own glory.To uproot anything, we must get down to the root cause and eliminate that cause. This problem is linked to the origin of the universe wherein the consciousness, male purusha got entangled with elements of female Prakriti. This problem cannot be understood or analyzed by our limited intellect. It can and will be solved only through the transcendent knowledge that can be gained through enlightenment.  The key concept to remember is that the yoking of Purusha with Prakriti has taken place giving rise to bondage. Now we need to reach the state of liberation before fully eliminating all bondage, thus eradicating all suffering. The seer is Purusha who is the reflector of buddhi (the pure I-sense). The objects that are experienced by the buddhi are the knowable. The buddhi and the knowable, due to their proximity to Purusha, become an attribute of Purusha. Buddhi becoming the object of experience is revealed as the Purusha itself. This beginningless alliance between Purusha and the object of awareness (Prakriti represented by buddhi) is the cause of suffering which is avoidable. In the case of the union between Purusha and buddhi, it cannot be in space or time. Union in space is between two physical objects; union in time happens when two activities take place at the same time. The union between Purusha and buddhi is beginningless and is thus beyond time. The contact between the two is a peculiar union which cannot be distinguished by the senses. The union seems to occur only due to the I-sense (ahamkara) and can only be the result of ignorance since in reality these two are separate. Liberation from sorrow can only happen as a result of knowledge. The object or the knowable remains unmanifest unless seen by the observer. But it goes on mutating due to its inherent nature. As it is seen by the seer, it becomes the seer’s object and is thus dependent on the seer. Similarly to remove suffering we need to remove Purusha from its association with Prakriti. This sutra and several of the subsequent sutras constitute the essence of the Samkhya philosophy. These sutras clearly tell us that Samkhya and Yoga are essentially dualistic philosophies where Purusha and Prakriti are projected as two independent entities. Most people are aware that ‘yoga’ is derived from the root word ‘yuj’. The most commonly given meaning of ‘yuj’ is to join, unite or yoke etc. In that sense, most people tend to say that yoga is the ‘union of body, mind and soul’, without really understanding its true meaning. What we need to understand is that another meaning of ‘yuj’ (as per dhatupatha which is the source book of all root words in Sanskrit) is ‘samadhau’ (in samadhi) or ‘to concentrate the mind’.  In light of the sutra 2.17 which we are discussing here, it is clear that, in fact, the union between Purusha (soul) and Prakriti (mind-body complex) is indeed the cause of suffering and the cycle of birth and re-birth. It is only through un-uniting the two, that is, understanding the separation between Purusha (the seer) and Prakriti (the seen) that one can attain liberation. …

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थॊ हि भुङ्क्तॆ प्रकृतिजान्गुणान्
कारणं गुणसङ्गॊ‌स्य सदसद्यॊनिजन्मसु 21
Bhagavad Gita (13.21) 4000 BC

puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijān guṇān
kāraṇaṃ guṇasaṅgosya sadasadyonijanmasu 13.2 

"Since the soul is seated in Nature, therefore it experiences the qualities born of Nature. Contact with the qualities is the cause of its births in good and evil wombs."

We keep Bhagawad Gita at the level of the lowest common denominator , the layman with average intellect. The REAL wisdom of Bhagawad Gita can be understood only by the super-intelligent. Understand Samkhya Vedanta , creation of cosmos, on a macro scale  below. This is the third template of Sanatana Dharma. In Hindusim we call the MALE- purusha and FEMALE- pragati. Sometimes for purposes of the Kundalini raise MALE is SHIVA and FEMALE is Shakti ( Parvati ).

4000 years ago Adi Shankaracharya wrote –
Shivah Shakthyaa Yuktho Yadi Bhavathi Shakthaha Prabhavithum
Na Chedevam Devo Na Khalu Kushalaha Sphandithumapi

Translation Verse No 1 : Shiva becomes capable of creating the Universe, only when united with Shakthi , but otherwise , He is incapable of even a stir.

Tanta is NOT perverse sex. In the Tantric cosmology, the whole universe is perceived as being created, penetrated and sustained by two fundamental forces, which are permanently in a perfect, indestructible UNION. These forces or universal aspects are called Shiva and Shakti. Tantric art has captured the images of the Purusha and his consort, Pragati, in ecstatic union.  This is NOT perverted sex. Purusha and Pragati is expressed as Shiva and Shakti in the same body 50:50 – this is NOT a she boy or a transgender .  It is a mindboggling,  intelligent concept. In Hinduism we have placed the female on a pedestal . No man can do a yagam if he is a bachelor or a widower. Purusha is the embodiment of pure consciousness, and Pragati as the embodiment of pure energy.  Both Shiva and Shakti are Consciousness---- Shiva is the changeless static aspect of Consciousness, and Shakti is the kinetic, active aspect of the same Consciousness. Through uniting with Purusha , Pragati gave form to his spirit and created the universe.(we are talking about CREATION OF THE COSMOS here- not street side sex  as figured out by small minds).When the insentient Prakriti comes in contact with the sentient Purusha , the universe evolves. Purusha symbolizes consciousness, the masculine principle. Pragati symbolizes the feminine principle, the activating energy.  The cosmos in all its manifestations, as an act of love.  The relationship between say- Shakti and Shiva is the dance of consciousness and energy experienced within each of us, regardless of gender. Shiva resides in the highest Sahasrāra Chakra and Shakti in the lowest Mūlādhāra Chakra. When Prakriti and Purusha unite in the Sahasrāra Chakra ( raising of Kundalini ) , knowledge, knower and the object of knowledge become one.  Sankhya thus is a theory of evolution and understanding the universe. Prakriti cannot be perceived, not because of its non-existence, but because of its subtlety. It is perceived in its effects. The eternal and indestructible union between Shiva and Shakti gives birth to the whole Macrocosm, in its stable, static aspect as well as in its dynamic one. Not only is Shakti responsible for creation, it is also the agent of all change. Shakti is manifested by Shiva only during creation and is withdrawn into himself at the end of creation. This is for the perceptive.  Shallow western minds have never understood this  amazing truth. Modern science repeats from our Vedas that matter and energy are interchangeable.  So does consciousness and energy .  In the highest planes they are interchangeable, which is why we see a great incongruence between our spiritual experiences and the external reality. In the higher metaphysical realms and subtle planes of our consciousness the physical laws of our universe lose their validity.  Samkhya as you can see was a masterpiece of modeling the ways of the inner universe.

Tayor yad yamalam rupam sa samghatta iti smrtah---
Ananda-saktih saivokta yato visvam visrjyati,
Na Sivah Saktirahito na Saktih Sivavarjita.  ---(Tantraloka-Ahnika, 3.)

"The coupled form of these two (Shiva-Shakti) is called junction.  That is called the blissful Shakti from which creation arises.

ADAM and EVE story is just lifted from our sanskrit upanishads -  this story is the basis of the Abrahamic religions Judaism/ Christianity / Islam. All three religions draw upon this STOLEN story from MUNDAKA upanishad III, 1, 1-3 ( Genesis of the Old Testament ).. This story and speaks of the tree of knowledge and God's commandment that its fruit shall not be eaten. Adam at first did not eat it but Eve did. After that Adam too ate the forbidden fruit. The upanishad ORIGINAL story is about two birds sitting on a peepal tree.   The birds are PURUSHA (atman )and PRAKRITI ( jiva )-- with purusha being the witness. HEY PRESTO--ATMAN becomes ADAM.  JIVA becomes EVE ( j is silent in most areas ) --people call me AIT ( ayit ) instead of AJIT. The FIG which eve ate is the fruit of the peepal tree ( FICUS ) -- the true botanical name today is FICUS RELIGIOSA.  The old testament NEVER spoke of apple ( from a fig tree ) !

2.18 -- prakashakriyasthitishilan bhootendriyatmakan bhogapavargarthan drishyam

Nature, its three qualities - sattva, rajas and tamas, and its evolutes, the elements, mind, senses of perception and organs of action, exist eternally to serve the seer, for enjoyment or emancipation.

The visible objective world consists of elements of nature and senses of perception comprising three qualities or attributes (gunas), which are illumination, motion or action, and inertia or dormancy. All these exist perpetually to serve the seer (the subject) for the purpose of experiencing the pleasures and infatuations (objects) of the world, or for emancipation. This sutra delineates the characteristics, actions and uses of nature (prakrti). The three attributes of nature are sattva, rajas and tamas.. According to Patanjali, sattva, rajas and tamas represent prakasa, kriya and sthiti. These attributes have their own virtues, for instance, prakasa or brilliance or splendour is sattva; kriya or study, investigation and action is rajas; and the essence of the being resting as sthiti or dormancy is tamas. That which is knowable has the nature of illumination, activity, and inertia (sattva, rajas and tamas). It consists of the senses and the elements, and exists for the purpose of (providing) either liberation or experience (to purusha). All these attributes and virtues are established in the elements of nature, senses, mind, intelligence and ego. Together they function tunefully in the form of illumination, action and inertia, allowing the seer to enjoy the world's pleasures (bhoga); or by divesting himself of them, to experience liberation.  The seer is enclothed with five sheaths (kosas), by the elements of nature - earth, water, fire, air and ether. Earth represents the anatomical, water the physiological, fire the mental, air the intellectual and ether the spiritual sheaths. The organs of action and senses of perception assist the sadhaka in cleansing the anatomical and physiological sheaths through yama and niyama. Asana, pranayama and pratyahara divests the seer of the mental sheath; dharana and dhyana cleanse the intellectual sheath. Samadhi brings the seer out through the shackles of all the sheaths to experience freedom and beatitude. The purpose of the whole of Nature is for purusha to gain experience.  At the beginning of evolution, Purusha comes in contact with Prakriti which disturbs the equilibrium state of the three gunas. The objective of yoga is to harmonize rajas and tamas back into sattva which needs to dominate before Purusha can realize it own true nature. This is self-realization. When self-realization is attained through a dominant sattva, the other two gunas are not ‘dead’. They are just not active; however, they can be called upon into action if the sattva so desires. So, for a realized person, the gunas are under the control of sattva and come into play when the consciousness is projected outward. In DVAITA Vedanta ( second template ) Rajas and Tamas are two opposite poles mediated by Sattwa ( TRINITY ) . Tamas and Rajas are opposing fields like positive and negative while Sattva is neutral. In Dvaita Hinduism opposite poles Tamas and Rajas are conscious of each other. Tamas creates Rajas, and Rajas activates/ excites Tamas. 7000 year old Vedas say that the only constant in the cosmos is change, everything is in a state of flux, nothing is static-- everything is vibratory.  This is what guarantees growth and evolution. It is a cosmic spiraling dance of  separate opposing forces, which sustains this universe. No life is possible on earth without this subtle tension . What has a front has a back-- what has a beginning has an end. Brahma / Vishnu / Shiva work in tandem and perfect harmony—amazing cosmic allegories personalized as Hindu Gods.   One cannot exist without the other and they are dependant .  No phenomenon in this universe is completely devoid of its opposite.  They consume each other yet support each other. Whatever is in excess gets reduces, whatever is deficient gets replenished. You must ponder over each waxing-waning cycle to appreciate the absolute truth . They keep each other in check, yet provide fuel to feed off each other. It is a perfect tango of dynamic balance where one polar opposite changes into another smoothly and constantly .  If the restraining balance or equilibrium is lost by the mediator ( Vishnu ) , the universe will spiral out of control and end. This is why Lord Vishnu is called the PRESERVER god.  As for the opposing forces TAMAS/ RAJAS ( Brahma/ Shiva ) it really does NOT matter as who is who, like in AC electricity-where you can plug into the socket both ways. This principle of Dvaita Hinduism -- Tamas Rajas , which are rooted together , is present in every phenomenon on earth.  Vedanta has recorded  7000 years ago, that energy transforms from one to another—it can neither be created or destroyed. These two opposing forces are natural and transform each other , in perfect harmony.  Harmony can never be stagnant .  Lessening of Tamas always results in increase of Rajas and vice versa. Balance can never be permanent— Tamas and Rajas continiously devour each other – and life flows on. Tamas influences Rajas not only from inside but also from outside.. they are rooted together.  Tamas and Rajas are connected through consciousness.  It is about the quantum possibility wave vibration between two poles.  Ancient Vedic Indian rishis  firmly believed that the invisible below the quantum screen gives rise to the visible.  So either Tamas or Rajas is visible – never both. Together the TRINITY  - THE SECOND TEMPLATE express the supreme BRAHMAN  - THE BASE TEMPLATE at absolute peace with itself. This universe cannot exist without vibrations between two poles. To the spiritual eastern mind, the story of SAMUDRA MANTHAN produces amazing acts of faith like the Kumbh Mela , which has been going on for 6000 years. The Devas Asuras doing pull and push is represented by Samudra manthan, where mount Meru is used to churn the oceans for Amrit  ( Ambrosia ) in a to and fro movement , representing vibrations- by 54 Asuras and 54 Devas making the number divine Hindu number 108 rooted in Sri Yantra ( 54 triple intersections ) . The purpose of the phenomenal world is to provide an experience which helps in the growth and perfection of the individual centers of consciousness. The final role of the phenomenal world is to provide liberation for the Purusha. It is only through the experiences provided by the bhutas and indriyas that the evolution of consciousness can unfold until final liberation happens. Sattva is sentience – knowing (for a subject or organs of knowledge) or capable of being known (for an object of Prakriti); rajas is mutability – all forms of movement and action; tamas is inertia – latencies and retention. Thus, all internal and external worlds are made up of the three gunas – sattva, rajas and tamas. A knowable or an object is that which needs association with Purusha for being revealed. The elements (bhutas) and the organs (indriyas) constitute the entirety of the world of objects. For the Seer (Purusha), the seen (drishya) has two purposes – that of providing experience of pleasure and pain, and of liberation. Liberation implies that the seer realizes that it is not an object or knowable but is separate from all knowables (drishya or Prakriti). Everything, internal or external, is an aggregate of the three gunas. Pleasure and pain are characteristics of buddhi (intellect). Happiness etc are the objects of experience by the Purusha. Pleasure and pain are a result of the reflected consciousness of Purusha. Giving up both pleasure and pain leads to final liberation. Witnessing of and identification with the experience is called bondage whereas witnessing the buddhi in liberation is called freedom (kaivalya). Yoga enumerates these basic functions of the inner instruments which are the result of the joint action of the mind and the senses: reception, retention, recollection, elimination, conception, and determination. These six are present in all states of a fluctuating mind. When the fluctuations of the mind stop, these six also come to a stop. As long as the world is manifest, the three gunas are always in flux. They assert themselves in various proportions, giving rise to ever-changing world of manifest forms. The purpose of the gunas is to provide either experience of liberation for the purusha. Experience consists in pursuing pleasure and avoiding pain while liberation entails realization by purusha of its own true nature. Bondage is the false identification of purusha with the buddhi. Liberation is the uncoupling of purusha from the buddhi. When the buddhi is impure due to the dust of rajas and darkness of tamas, it does not discriminate between the seer and the seen. When the buddhi is purified, the natural illumination of sattva shines through and the distinction between purusha and buddhi becomes clear. Apavarga means a state in which the empowerment of gunas can be abandoned and transmigration into cycles of birth and rebirth etc can be terminated. Hence the word apavarga has been used for ‘liberation’. Both bhoga (experience) and apavarga (liberation) are happening in the buddhi (intellect) since Purusha, in the true sense, is simply a witness. As mentioned above, they are attributed to Purusha only because the buddhi functions based on reflected consciousness from the Purusha. Apavarga implies that all identification between the Purusha and what is happening in the buddhi is severed and Purusha remains as a pure witness.

2.19 -- visheshavisheshalinggamatralinggani gunnaparvani

The gunas generate their characteristic divisions and energies in the seer. Their stages are distinguishable and non-distinguishable, differentiable and non-differentiable.

This sutra analyses nature (prakrti) by distinguishing the progressive layers of its manifestation, from the most specific and definable, up through the non-specific and non-distinguished and back to the undifferentiated or universal. The individual counterpart of cosmic intelligence (mahat) is consciousness, or citta. Citta consists of mind (manas), which reviews sensory and vibrational stimuli, intelligence (buddhi), which is the discriminative faculty and ego or small self (ahamkara) which is the individual 'I'. In addition, hidden deep within man's nature is a powerful hidden spiritual weapon - 'conscience' (antahkarana or dharmendriya) which personifies ethical and moral principles. Antahkarana observes right and wrong in one's conduct and motives, helps to cultivate citta and directs it to perform only the righteous actions. There are also the five senses of perception - ears, tongue, eyes, nose and skin, and five organs of action - legs, arms, speech, genital and excretory organs. These are the principles of prakrti. The five elements, intelligence, senses of perception and organs of action are distinguishable, i.e., physically manifest in concrete form. The other parts, the five subtle manifestations of the elements and the 'I' consciousness (ahamkara, antahkarandand asmita) exist in a non-distinguishable or vibrational form, being non-primary and un-evolved matter. Yet, all these revolve around the three gunas of nature - tamas, rajas and sattva. The principles (tativas) of distinguishable elements (visesa) give rise to changes which may be pleasant, unpleasant or dazed (a state of suspended or deadened sensibility). The unspecified principles (avisesa tattvas) are un-evolved matter, and when such matter is transformed into a specified state, creation takes place. This is called pravrttimarga. The reverse process, mvnti marga, is the unifying of the specified in the unspecified, of the non-specified in and of nature into the universal spirit (purusa). The fusing of nature into spirit is a heavenly marriage, which becomes possible through the work of yoga.  Human mind is a part of that cosmic intelligence. Tanmatras, cannot be sensed by ordinary men. If you practice Yoga, however, says Patanjali, after a while your perception will become so fine that you will actually see the Tanmatras.  Tanmatra means – rudimentary or subtle element, merely that, mere essence, potential or only a trifle. There are five sense perceptions – hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell, and there are the five tanmatras corresponding to the five sense perceptions and five sense-organs. The tanmatras combine and re-combine in different ways to produce the gross elements – earth, water, fire, air and ether, which make up the gross universe perceived by the senses. The senses play their part by coming into contact with the objects, and carry impressions of them to the manas which receives and arranges them into a precept. The five substantial elements of the physical world are – ether (Akasha), air (Vayu), fire (Agni or Taijasa), water (Ap) and earth (Prithvi) in the order of their development, these are the five Bhutas from whose unlimited combination everything results including the living bodies which are material forms living in space and time. According to the Vedic theory of creation, the tanmatras are the basis of all corporeal existences because from them evolve the Bhutas, the building blocks of the perceptible universe. The tanmatras, the subtle matter, vibratory, impingent, radiant, instinct with potential energy and collocations of original mass units with unequal distributions of original energy, evolve out of the Bhutadi which is only an intermediate state. They have some mass and the energy and physical characteristics like penetrability, powers of impact, radiant heat and viscous attraction etc., and have effect on the sense after assuming the form of paramanus or atoms of the Bhutas (the created ones) which process is Tattavantraparinama or primary evolution. In evolution the total energy always remains the same redistributed between causes and effects, the totality of effects exists in the totality of causes in the potential form. The collocations and regroupings of the three Gunas (attribute or property) induce more differentiated evolutes; they constitute the changes leading to evolutions i.e. from cause to effect, which process is based on Satkaryavada, the doctrine the effect is existent in the cause even before the causal process has started to produce the effect operating in accordance with the two laws of conservation of matter and energy. According to Satkaryavada  theory the effect is existent in the cause; the original cause of everything that is perceived is Prakriti. Satkaryavada is a hypothesis according to which the effect pre-exists in a potential state. The causal process involves a modification of a stable underlying reality. The effect is not produced as a reality that is distinct from its underlying cause. It is a specific rearrangement of that causal substrate. The Samkhya system is based on the principle of Satkaryavada. The effect pre-exists in the cause here. Cause and effect are seen as temporal aspects of the same thing. It is considered as theory of existent causes. The effect lies latent in the cause which in turn seeds the next effect. It maintains that effect is real. Before its manifestation it is present cause in a potential form. According to Satkaryavada principle the cause is hidden inside the effect. This effect exists due to several reasons- 1.what is nonexistent cannot be produced; 2.for producing a specific material cause is resorted to; 3.everything cannot be produced; 4.a specific material cause is capable of producing a specific product alone that effect; 5.there is a particular cause for a particular effect. Adi Sankaracharya found Satkaryavada as a useful tool against the doctrine of Annica or momentariness. Two branches of Satkaryavada are vivartavada and parinamavada. The four stages of the gunas mentioned in this sutra correspond to the four stages of samadhi mentioned in sutra 1.17. Thus:Vishesha – Vitarka (Manomaya kosha) Avishesha – Vichara (Vijnananamaya Kosha) Linga – Ananda (Anandamaya Kosha) Alinga – Asmita (Atma/soul).  The visheshas (diversified) are the sixteen mutations – five bhutas (earth, water, fire, air and space)---five organs of action (arms, legs, tongue, organs of excretion, organs of reproduction)---five organs of sense perception (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose)---mind . Attributes like blue, red, sweet, sour etc are vishesha (diversified). The vishesha can be pleasant, unpleasant and stuporous. The avishesha (undiversified) are six in number:--the five tanmatras (sense of smell, taste, touch, sight, hearing) asmita (ego) which is the cause of the organs and tanmatras. Mahat (buddhi or intellect) is called ‘linga-matra’ (indicator only) which means that it is an indicator for Purusha and Prakriti. Prakriti, in the unmanifest state, is ‘alinga’, which is not the indicator of anything.

Bhoomiraapo’nalo vaayuh kham mano buddhireva cha;
Ahamkaara iteeyam me bhinnaa prakritirashtadhaa.-- Bhagavad Gita (7:4) 4000 BC

“Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, reason and egoism – these constitute the eightfold division of My Nature”

Ordinary water, earth etc do not constitute the bhutas (elements). That whose feature is sound is Akasha (space). Similarly touch goes with Vayu (air), sight with Tejas (fire), taste with Apa (water), and smell with Kshiti (earth). Akasha is the cause of Vayu, Vayu is the cause of Tejas, Tejas is the cause of Apa, and water is the cause of Kshiti. Because of this cause and effect, an object of the sense of smell is the receptacle of all five properties. An object of the sense of taste that of four (except smell), sight that of three, touch that of two and hearing that of one property only.Perception of smell comes from contact with particles of matter (earth/kshiti). Taste arises from chemical action caused by a liquid substance (water/aap). From heat (fire/agni) comes perception of color (sight/vision). Feeling of touch results from contact with gaseous matter (air/vayu). With the sense of sound arises a sense of emptiness or void (space/akasha). The five bhutas (gross elements) like earth, fire etc are the Visheshas of the five tanmatras. Visheshas represent three characteristics:To indicate the diversities of the notes of the scales of sound; heat, cold, hardness etc (touch), blue, yellow etc (fire/light), sweet, sour etc (taste), pleasant, pungent etc (smell). These diversities result in states of happiness, misery or indifference. These bhutas are the lowest form of mutation and are not the cause of any further modifications. The word ‘tanmatra’ means ‘that alone’ – sound alone, touch alone etc. That is, subtle sound, without any variation or diversity is the sound tanmatra. Same is the case with other tanmatras. When meditated upon, the subtle perception of each tanmatra appears only as a flow of time. All the tanmatras have emanated from Asmita (ego). Asmita (ego) is the pretentious feeling relating to self. Asmita also refers to the pure I-sense, buddhi, which is the subtlest form of egoism. Combination of one’s ego with the organs of perception creates I-sense which is called Abhimana.Organs represent different modifications of asmita. Knowledge of light, for example, implies the sense of identification of the Knower with the sensation of light. This feeling "I am the knower of light" is the ego called Asmita. Mahat or buddhi is the awareness that "I exist" or pure "I-sense". Modifications like "I am the hearer" etc is the modification of "I" and is termed ego or Ahamkara. Mahat tattwa (element) is the cause for Ahamkara. The Mahat principle gives rise to the six Avisheshas – Asmita (ahamkara) followed by the five tanmatras.At the time of dissolution, all elements disappear in the reverse order of creation. Finally, Mahat disappears into the unmanifest (Avyakta) prakriti. All manifested objects like Mahat etc are created to serve the two-fold purpose of Purusha (sutra 2.18). Unmanifest Prakriti, however, is eternally present, and is not created because it has no purpose to serve for the Purusha. Objects like Mahat are beginning-less; however, they are not without an end – they end when the purpose of Purusha (attaining the state of Kailvalya) has been served. All objects are the product of the three Gunas (sattva, rajas and tamas). Gunas are always present in Prakriti. The unmanifest state is one of equilibrium of the three gunas. At the time of dissolution, when the objects merge back into Prakriti, there is no dissolution for the gunas; they just merge back into Prakriti. The category ‘vishesha’ refers to the final evolutes that do not produce further products or evolutes. The category ‘avishesha’ refers to those evolutes that produce the final ‘vishesha’ evolutes. So, the five elements – earth, water, fire, air and ether are the vishesha evolutes of the avishesha – sound, touch, taste, sight and smell. Avishesha also includes ‘ahankara’ (ego) which is responsible for these evolutes – five organs of action (speech, hands, feet, anus, and genitals), five organs of perception (ears, eyes, skin, tongue, and nose) and the mind. The ‘linga-matra’, literally mark or a sign only, category refers to ‘mahat’ or ‘buddhi’ (the cosmic intellect) which is a mark or a sign for prakriti. Buddhi is like the root of a tree. It is the closest to the seed that produced it  and is also the cause of trunk, leaves, branches etc. Buddhi is also a transformation of the gunas. It represents pure ‘beingness’. Vyasa says that it is neither existence nor non-existence, neither real nor unreal. The final category, the subtlest of all, is prakriti itself which has been called ‘alinga’ (not a mark or symbol for anything). There is no sign to discern prakriti until there is disturbance in the balance of the gunas which results in the first evolute ‘mahat’. Prakriti is eternal whereas all its evolutes are temporary manifestations of prakriti. Everything that one experiences in manifest reality, including the subtlest level of viveka (discrimination) is taking place in the buddhi. In the alinga state, the gunas are balanced and cannot fulfill the objectives of Purusha – namely, experience and liberation (sutra 2.18). In that sense they may seem "non-existent". However, the gunas are capable of producing effects (evolutes) and hence can be termed "existent". Comparing these Samkhya concepts with those of the Vedanta school, we notice that in Vedanta, prakriti, the gunas and the entire manifest world are all mental constructs and mere superimpositions of templates on the only real existent, Brahman. On the other hand, as per Samkhya and Yoga, prakriti is existent, real and eternal.

2.20 -- drashta drishimatrah shuddhopi pratyayanupashyah

The seer is pure consciousness. He witnesses nature without being reliant on it. 

The seer ( unlike a schizophrenic ) has a clear boundary between the real physical world and the invisible world.. This sutra moves on from nature to soul, the Supreme Seer, the absolute knower. It is the pure essence of consciousness beyond words. Though the soul is pure, it is liable to see through its agent, the intelligence (buddhi) and being carried away by the manipulation of nature, it loses its identity. The previous sutra dealt with nature (prakrti) and discernible objects. Here, the nature of the seer, the soul (purusa) is described. Atma, drasta and drsimatrah are terms which illustrates the innate nature of the seer. Intelligence obscures consciousness in such a way that it comes to identify itself as the true seer and forgets the soul. But if intelligence can keep its power of discernment, consciousness too will remain uncoloured. If consciousness is clear, the seer is un-obscured. Intelligence, belonging as it does to manifest nature, is constantly in the process of change, sometimes conscious and often unconscious. It is subject to sattva, rajas and tamas, while the seer, purusa, is beyond all these, immutable and ever-conscious. When you use psychic power you tap into the level of the universe, where individuality does not exist. At this level each of us is a part of a universal and cosmic consciousness where we are connected as though held together by invisible threads. By learning to project your will and change your vibration through altering the state of your consciousness , you will begin to develop psychic powers. The expanded abilities of self awareness is abstract reasoning, free will, creativity, foresight etc.   Our culture is oriented towards reducing one’s self awareness rather than expanding it. Most people never raise their consciousness much above that of the beast and the spark of divinity within them remains dormant the whole of their lives . Perception occurs in the gap of alert attention. This is the inner space. When you visit new places , the experiencing and sense perception takes up more of their consciousness than thinking . You can create a gap in the mind stream simply by directing the focus of your attention into the NOW.  Consciousness enables us to think and at the same time observe our thinking process. The brain without consciousness is inert and lifeless.  Consciousness is a form of matter just as matter is a form of consciousness. All atoms in the entire universe are capable of mind reading and communicating with other atoms. Our consciousness is a cosmic DVD player. India there is the ancient tradition of the enlightened sage, the one who breaks free of ordinary human conditioning and attains a state called "awakening By various means such as deep meditation or by pure devotion, or by the control and understanding of the mind these historical figures broke through into universal consciousness itself, and beyond that even, into the pure awareness of the absolute. They experienced a quantum leap and a arrived a state that cannot be defined and described. People simply called them the enlightened ones. Cosmic Consciousness lies in a mystic state above and beyond Self-consciousness, which is an acute sense of self-awareness.

 2.21 -- tadarth eva drishyasyatma

The very existence of the seen is for the sake of the seer.

Nature and intelligence exist solely to serve the seer's true purpose - emancipation.  Intelligence exists to serve as the seer's agent, to liberate the consciousness from avidya. If the sadhaka slackens in his sadhana and becomes inattentive, the senses agitate the seer and he is again hitched within the pleasures of the senses. This study of mind and investigation through intelligence is the innermost pursuit - antaratma sadhana. This sutra conveys that consciousness, the essence of nature, which is cognisable, exists for the sake of the seer who sees for the sake of seeing.  As a dancer,  after having performed for the observer , stops dancing, so does Prakṛti cease to perform for an individual Puruṣha when her task is accomplished—a corner stone of Samkhya Vedanta . The dancing girl dances as long as the male observer is there. The moment the observer ceases to look at her and understands the dance perfectly, she fails to amuse him anymore. Purusha, or supreme consciousness ( BrahmAn ) , is the impassive observer of all phenomena. She moves from transcendence to immanence and undergoes a series of transformations through which the multiform world comes into being.  Purusha, was never really in bondage, or enmeshed with Prakriti.  Prakriti cannot be perceived, not because of its non-existence, but because of its subtlety. It is perceived in its effects. Sankhya  accepts the principle of satkarya-vada, i.e. the effect exists in cause. 

The ignorant differentiate between Sankhya and Yoga; not the wise. He who considers the two as integrated has the right insight – Bhagawat Gita (5.4) 4000 BC

I have said before that two paths are available in this world - Yoga of knowledge as followed by the Samkhyas and Yoga of action as practiced by the Yogins .– Bhagawat Gita (3.3)- 4000 BC

The root cause (Brahman) is to be apprehended by Samkhya-yoga - Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.13) -5000 BC

There is no wisdom like Samkhya – Mahabharata 4000 BC

In Samnkhya, direct perception is the most important and fundamental source of all knowledge. When senses cannot directly perceive due to their limitations, inference is needed such as in philosophical disputations. The very existence of Purusa ( BrahmAn – morphogenetic consciousness ) is possible only through inference. Patanjali drew heavily upon Sankhya philosophy in the development of his Yoga Sutras, and many of the practical methods and techniques of yoga rest on Sankhya's philosophical foundations. . Yoga is  a complete exercise program for body,  mind and spirit. SaMkhya and SaNkhya is same .  Samkhya as you can see was a masterpiece of modeling the ways of the inner universe. Maharishi Kapila said that the universe arose through the union of nature (prakriti) and consciousness (purusha).

Of all trees I am the banyan tree, and of the sages among the demigods I am Narada. Of the Gandharvas I am Citraratha, and among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila.- Bhagawat Gita (10.26)

Sankhya unified the two concepts of science and religion by demonstrating its equivalence through axiomatic laws. The Sankhya system is based on Sat-kārya-vāda or the theory of causation. According to Satkāryavāda, the effect is pre-existent in the cause. Philosophical texts from this era such as the Katha Upanishad, Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Bhagavad Gita have clear references to Sankhyan terminology and concepts. The Sankhya system is an evolutionary theory of matter beginning with primordial matter. In evolution, Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects. Evolution is followed by dissolution. In dissolution the physical existence, all the worldly objects mingle back into Prakriti, which now remains as the undifferentiated, primordial substance.  Tantric system borrows the abstract dualism of Sankhya and modifies it into a personified male–female dualism. The white invader converted Tantra into debauched sex. As we evolve, the spirit will control the mind and body to determine our thoughts, words and actions. At the apex of evolution, the mind takes its cues from the spirit and the body from the mind.

2.22— kritarthan prati nashtam apyanashtan tadanyasadharannatvat

The relationship with nature ceases for emancipated beings, its purpose having been satiated, but its processes continue to affect others

As soon as the vehicles of nature which act as agents of the seer fulfill their task of freeing him from his mental and sensory prison, they are stilled, having reached their purpose. The bond between the seer and nature comes to a culmination. Nature ceases to exist for him. He is able to perceive his own form (svarupa). However, the vehicles of nature, elements, their subtle qualities, cosmic intelligence, individual self, ego, intelligence, senses of perception and organs of action are common to all, so for others, who remain caught up in the world's commotions, the bondage lives on. In the thirteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, the one who sees the field (prakriti) as distinct from the knower of the field (purusha) is called wise. Krishna advises Arjuna that "He who sees himself not to be the doer, he sees indeed (Bhagawad Gita  XIII:29). When the seer is perceived as distinct from the "I" that claims, the yogin then loses interest in the generation of compulsive citta-vrittis (mind chatter ).. Nothing is claimed by the "I". With this movement the sediment of prior conditioning (samskara) is cleared away; objects shine forth devoid of inherent, defined form (svarupa-sunya); the consciousness-of or "I-vs.-that" consciousness has retreated; pure witnessing takes place. In this state of pure consciousness, attention cannot be separated from the intended: awareness is both subject-free (anahamvadi) and object-free (nirvastuka). Yoga may thus be defined not as a union of appropriating self with objects, even religious objects of appropriation, nor as Cartesian separation of thinker from thought, but rather as a moment in which there is the nonseparation of knower, knowing, and known. The point of yoga is to have direct access to the intended world without the interference of impure residues. Yoga seeks to sever projects, present from a time without beginning, that obscure direct perception through the seer. the yogi excises a part of his corpus of being--citta vritti--so that the unseen seer, the witness, may be known. 'Mind' is not a proper English translation of what the Yoga calls 'Chitta', especially in the system of Patanjali. The entire mind-stuff is called Chitta. It is better to use the word 'psyche' instead of the word 'mind', because the former denotes a larger composite structure than the single function indicated by the word 'mind'. Mind is that which thinks in an indeterminate manner; the intellect is that which thinks in a determinate manner; the ego is that which asserts the individuality of one's own self. There are other functions of the psyche such as memory, often associated with the subconscious level. It is impossible for anyone to be aware that something is outside, unless there is an isolated thinking or an individualising principle, known in the Vedanta psychology as the Antahkarana, and in the Yoga psychology of Patanjali as Chitta. "Antahkarana" is a Sanskrit term, which literally translated into English, would mean, "the internal organ". That is perhaps the best way we can put it in English. The internal organ, by which we cognise or perceive things outside, is the Antahkarana. The same thing is called Chitta in Yoga psychology. Yoga is control of the mind, restraint of the mind-stuff. Yoga is Chitta-vritti-nirodhah. As a word, vritti means literally vortex (of consciousness), or "circular activity with no beginning and no end". Training in yoga in the larger sense – namely, concentration, attention, and meditation – can help stop these fluctuations and quiet the chatter, so that you can get in touch with a truer sense of self, and a more peaceful, watchful sort of awareness. In the context of Hinduism and yoga, vrittis refer to different tendencies, or psycho-physical propensities, which give scope for the mind to express a variety of feelings and emotions. Hindu texts describe samskaras to be a result of past actions and experiences that have left an imprint on the mind. The expression of samskaras gives rise to vrittis, which collectively represent the behaviour that makes each person unique: their desires and repulsions, their predispositions and complexes. Purusha is the Witness. Prakriti produces effects for his enjoyment. Purusha is ‘solitary, neutral, a spectator, and non-agent’ (Samkhya Karika). Purusha is solitary because even though as consciousness he is the Witness to the effects produced by Prakriti and her three gunas, Purusha remains pure and untouched. The three gunas are born of Prakriti. It is their imbalance that causes the wheels-within-wheels to turn and produce the hologram. After a cyclical Dissolution of the world the gunas return to and remain in a state of perfect balance until next time of Creation. Purusha abides in Prakriti (prakritsthas) as Witness to the effects of her gunas (Bhagawad Gita .XIII.21). Even though Purusha as Witness remains untouched by the gyrations and effects of Prakriti’s gunas, Purusha temporarily mistakes these ‘transformations’ as his own. Purusha wrongly assumes that he is the ‘agent’ of Prakriti’s manifestations. The Samkhya Karika states that it is his proximity with Prakriti that causes this false impression. In the process of his enjoyment of the world, Purusha begins to consider the polarities of pleasure-and-pain (sukha-duhkha), etc. as his own. This confusion, caused by attachment, eventually makes Purusha realize that he has become bound in the webs of Maya that are produced by Prakriti's gunas. Therefore after experiencing pain, Purusha realizes that he has become attached (guna-sangas) to those polarities which are the cause of the endless cycles of birth and death in both good and evil wombs (sad-asad-yoni-janmasu). The Atman enters into human bodies and becomes Purusha, which is Consciousness. There Purusha ‘correlates’ with the Unmanifest principle Prakriti, which is not conscious but has the female power (Shakti) to produce and manifest this polarity universe through the three gunas. The proximity - a sort of illusory union - of Purusha to Prakriti causes Purusha to forget his real state, which in reality is not capable of being affected by Prakriti’s changes; and he begins to mistake these effects, pleasure-and-pain (sukha-duhkha), as his own. Krishna tells Arjuna that the one who Knows from direct experience (vetti) this temporal and actually nonexistent ‘correlation’ between Purusha the real Self as Atman and the unreal Prakriti who produces the illusory, is not born again! Knowledge of the Real brings release from endless transmigration ( Bhagawad Gita XIII.23). Purusha is the Witness and experiencer. Prakriti works through the three gunas and the five senses to produce what Purusha experiences. Purusha would not develop this Discriminative Wisdom without Prakriti providing the experiences of pleasure (sukha) and pain (duhkha), etc.Purusha becomes indifferent ...The game is over once Purusha realizes the mechanics of their ‘correlation’ through his newly acquired Discriminative Wisdom. He recognizes that she is distinct from him. He comes to know her. The text says literally that she is ‘seen’ by him (maya drsta) and therefore he becomes indifferent (iti upeksha-kah). The one (Purusha) thinks: ‘she has been seen by me’ and therefore loses all interest; the other (Prakriti) thinks ‘I have been seen’ and ceases to act further. Therefore, even if there is still connection there is no motive for further evolution.--- Samkhya Karika, Verse 66. The writer of the Samkhya Karika compares Prakriti to a maiden who is modest in the sense of being extremely delicate with an acute sensitivity and ‘who cannot bear exposure to the prying glance of a stranger ... Having been seen [recognized] once by the Purusha through discrimination, will in no case expose herself again.’ My opinion is that nothing is more modest than the Prakriti: Knowing  that ‘I have been seen,’ she no more comes within the sight of Purusha.---- Samkhya Karika, Verse 61.While this comparison obviously is taken from another time when women of noble descent were not permitted to be seen by strangers or even the sun, the meaning is conveyed that for Prakriti the performance is over and she will not continue her dance. The gunas will cease their allure and stop the show.Destroyed like a burnt up seed ... We are told that perfect Knowledge is attained by this ‘recognition’ and afterwards Purusha ‘continues to live for a while invested with the body, just like a potter’s wheel continuing to revolve, even when the potter ceases in his efforts at revolving the wheel due to the momentum of the past impulse’ (Samkhya Karika 67).,,The attainment of ‘direct knowledge’ causes the ‘entire stock of subliminal impressions of deeds,’ which are the fuel of repeated births, to get ‘destroyed like a burnt up seed, and no more produces any fruit in the form of experiences of rebirth, life, etc.’‘ ... is not born again’.

2.23— svasvamishaktyoh svaroopopalabdhihetuh sanyogah

The conjunction of the seer with the seen is for the seer to discover his own nature.

The powers of purusa and prakrti are designated for Self-Realisation. The purpose of their contact is the blossoming of their innate powers, and the seer's discovery of his own essential nature.  This sutra makes clear that a desire for synthesis or a close association or assimilation between the owner, the 'owning' and the owned has existed since the beginning of civilization. By the light of pure knowledge, the owner, the seer, perceives and cognises whatever is to be perceived or cognised through his association with nature. If this association is fed by ignorance, it leads the master towards enjoyment, desire, and complaints, and ties him down. But if non-attachment is garnered, it leads to detachment or renunciation - vairagya. If the master maintains constant vigilant awareness of his consciousness, associates with nature without attachment and stays a witness, nature (prakrti) leads its owner, the soul, to freedom – moksa. The cause of our painor pleasure is always our joining ourselves with the body.Samyoga is connection or an intimate union between the mind and the being or Purusha, which allows the Purusha to observe the outside world. It is another story that although the experience is happening outside of the Purusha, this very union causes the Purusha to associate and attach with the experience and get dragged around by it.   Rather than simply observing, when the Purusha gets attached to the experience due to the samyoga, that is the root cause of suffering. The union of Owner (Purusha) and owned (Prakiti) causes the recognition of the nature and powers of them both. Union is necessary for the Purusha to realize himself with the help of Prakriti. When apart, they don’t express themselves. Through the Prakriti we realize that we are the Purusha. Perceiving the worldly objects is experience and perception of the real nature of the seer is liberation. Ignorance is the cause of the union between the seer and the seen whereas true knowledge dispels ignorance.  True knowledge is not the real cause of liberation, but technically it is the absence of ignorance that results in liberation. Full liberation is a step beyond discriminative intelligence and involves complete separation between purusha and buddhi. Prakriti, or buddhi, shows ignorance as it needs purusha for its functioning.   Purusha, too appears to have ‘adarshana’ as it needs to provide illumination to the buddhi. In sutra 2.17 Patanjali states that "union between purusha and prakriti is the cause of the suffering that can and should be avoided".  Now in sutra 2.23 we note that "this union between purusha and prakriti is REQUIRED to understand the true nature of the powers of both purusha and prakriti".  So, it seems as if this union is both good and bad depending upon how we look at it. My understanding is that it causes suffering when we are only interested in the ‘experience’ of the material world. On the other hand this union can lead to kaivalya if start working on developing discriminatory wisdom and finally realize the separation between purusha and prakriti. I wrote the below in my blogsite profile. QUOTE:- This blogsite will transform your mind . You yourself, are the teacher, the pupil, the messiah, the seeker, the traveller and the destination . It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to this profoundly sick society :UNQUOTE  .   COMMIES ( atheists ) without core values  killed maximum people on this planet.  Why? We have been brainwashed from a young age by big brother’s media.  150 years ago, Darwin had zilch idea , what DNA is,  or a cell is.  He was under instructions by Freemasons to say exactly what he said—to remove God and intelligent design from the equation and to shove in EVOLUTION . As per this nonsense, Giraffes neck became longer as the poor animal was given taller and taller trees to eat leaves from— really?  Oh yeah ??   7000 years ago Sanatana Dharma knew this is nonsense. A cell is the smallest unit of the human body and hence is the building block of life. There are millions of different types of cells, which have unique functions and features. The total amount of cells in a human body exceeds 100 trillion—or one hundred thousand billion cells. You cannot imagine how complex a microscopic cell is unless you enlarge it mentally say to the size of a huge bubble say the size of Mumbai. Only then you will appreciate the mind boggling and supreme intelligent design, with the surface of the cell having millions of ports, constantly opening and closing –allowing constant passage in and out.. Our ancient seers understood the majestic human body . More than 500 processes take place just in one cell of the liver, all in terrific speed of nano seconds. About 1 billion red blood cells are produced in the body every hour, inside each of which there are about 300 million molecules of Haemoglobin..  Every cell in our body came from division of the original single sperm cell. After that every cell chose its own individual shape and its tasks in a CONSCIOUS  manner, to make you look like what you see in the mirror externally. Atheists and commies why deny god do NOT understand all this. Every new cell knew where it must go and what it must do, when to start dividing, when to top dividing, with whom to form partnership, whom to keep away from, which hostile bacteria to kill, which friendly bacteria to ignore, when to commit suicide , what human organ it must form—all with perfect timing. They are all aware of each others functions and there is total harmony. Why are our NCERT books still peddling mad man and Rothschild agent Charles Darwin’s theory ? What is the Indian govt afraid of ? Or is Jew Rothschild still ruling India ?   Does our govt still think that the mangy sack of Darwin containing ridiculous goodies like dried finches and beaks  he picked up from Galapagos islands and Patagonia had all the answers?  Nobody else on the planet understood consciousness the way the ancient maharishis undertood it.  They were NOT dreamers , but supermen . Modern doctors know that if you give an unconscious person a placebo injection, it wont work. Consciousness plays a vital role. What is consciousness? A double slit quantum experiment revealed to the shocked world the powers of observation and consciousness in COLLAPSING A WAVE into matter— or the power of mind over matter.  After the shocking double slit experiment almost all western physicists converted to Hinduism and wrote down in their wills that they want to be cremated.  6200 year ago Ayurveda depended  on the mind body connection to heal the body. It is about “remembered wellness” —to bring the body back to its original energy DNA blueprint state. This is different from western medicine which works on a “ cause and effect “ principle, and addressing the symptoms till they disappear.  This causes side effects. Matter and mind are both possibilities of consciousness. Collapsed quantum possibilities could be physical or mental. It is about conscious choice and downward causation. This downward causation is free and unpredictable and the result of CONSCIOUS CHOICE, where outer follows inner-- it does not care for logical algorithms. Quantum healing works outside the fabric of space and time.True natural healing takes place at the quantum level.The holographic brains extension throughout the body is the nervous system.  The pineal gland has a lot to do with the placebo effect, as it has to do with the energy body. The only reality is consciousness. It is our intent that affects reality. Mind can wipe off mistakes or deviations of the blueprint .  DNA protein scientists may not agree, that in natures perfect design nothing ever dies. Brain is the ultimate pharmacy.  It produces the ultimate body friendly  antibiotics, painkillers, tranquilisers etc with perfect dosage. This is the  reason why there are no side effects. Consciousness affecting reality is the placebo effect. Mind is non material but it works in partnership with communicator molecules.  A quantum event does not follow cause and effect rules. How did the ancient Indian yogis survive on substandard diets for several years during severe penance?  Alexander the great came to India as he knew that all ancient Greek knowledge (100% )was from India, stolen and patented . His own religion was pagan Indian. Alexander the Great’s soldiers witnessed sages in deep meditation hopelessly entangled in creepers with cobras crawling due to the vibes -- and got totally psyched. They could not understand all this, it created fear , and they were done . They wanted out !

2.24— tasya heturavidya

Lack of spiritual understanding (avidya ) is the cause of the false identification of the seer with the seen.

Avidya and maya are the same, but avidya is individual and maya is cosmic.   Maya is only an instrument that Brahman uses to project the universe.  Through maya Brahman projects Himself as many.  Amalgamating of prakrti with purusa can either lead to emancipation or block one's progress by enmeshing one within desires and emotions.  Avidya, ignorance or lack of awareness, is at the root of the confusion that fetches suffering to one as well as pleasure. Vidya (discriminative knowledge) destructs ignorance, because a fire will burn only as long as fuel lasts.  When discernment relegates doubt, pure understanding begins the process of disownment and detachment which releases one from the pinions of possessing and being possessed. Avidya is the first of the 5 kleshas (which means coloring or veil), it is the first veil that covers the non-dual formless Consciousness.  The 5 kleshas are avidya, asmita, raga, dvesha, abhinivesha.  Avidya appears in four stages: 1) dormant or inactive, 2) attenuated or weakened, 3) interrupted or separated from temporarily, or 4) active and producing thoughts or actions to varying degrees. Avidya means without Truth or without knowledge. It is the first form of forgetting the spiritual Reality. It is not just a thought pattern in the conventional sense of a thought pattern. Rather, it is the very ground of losing touch with the Reality of being the ocean of Oneness, of pure Consciousness. Avidya is usually translated as ignorance, which is a good word, so long as we keep in mind the subtlety of the meaning. Ignorance is something that is removed, like removing a veil that obstruct the view. Then, with the ignorance removed, we see knowledge or Vidya clearly. Prakriti is known as Maya; when impure (being mixed up with rajas and tamas) it is called Avidya.  Once the basic principles of Avidya (Veiling, Ignorance) are understood, as well has how they progressively move awareness outward through Adhyasa (Projecting, Superimposition), it is easier to see the way in which these two are systematically reversed so as to attain the highest goals of traditional Yoga. Avidya (Nescience) or Maya, is also the Undifferentiated. There is no Ignorance (Avidya) outside the mind. The mind alone is Avidya, the cause of the bondage of transmigration. When that is destroyed, all else is destroyed, and when it is manifested, everything else is manifested.   With the rise of Vidya or realization, the entire effects of Avidya, even though beginningless, are destroyed together with their root – like dreams on waking up from sleep. The knowledge of the identity of the Jiva and Brahman entirely consumes the impenetrable forest of Avidya or Nescience. For one who has realized the state of Oneness, there is no seed left for future transmigration—seeds are fried. The Gurus as well as the Shrutis instruct the disciple, standing aloof; while the man of realization crosses (Avidya) through Illumination alone, backed by the grace of God. Nescience or Avidya has two functions: Avarana or the power to conceal and Viksepa or the power to project. You don’t see the universe as it really is because your perception of the universe is individual. You see things only partial through a little window of your eyes. This partial knowledge ( narrow window bandwidth / squelched senses ) has nothing to do with the totality of experience ( six blind men and the elephant ) and thus cannot be considered to be truth. The knot of ignorance and the knot of karma ( past soul samskaras /impressions ) compose the nature of avidya. Jiva is endowed with all the same qualities as Brahman, but jiva, through its association with avidya, thinks itself to be limited.  . When the jiva, the individual soul, learns to be free from the strong clutches of avidya, he realizes his true Self and becomes one with Brahman. You can remain in the bondage of avidya or you can release yourself. It is your choice. You are the way you are because you wanted to be this way. No one else has described for you or made any plans for you. This is your own planning. Each individual creates avidya. Thus it is your own ignorance and superimpositions that are responsible for your suffering. Without eliminating attachment and passions, spiritual knowledge does not arise. The joys of the sensory gratification that one delights in are short-lived, and when the fruits of these actions are exhausted, one again falls back into the cruel clutches of avidya or ignorance. The term maya is closely related to with avidya. Maya can be described as apparent reality—that which does not exist though it appears to exist. Ma means “no”, ya means “that”. An example of maya is a mirage in the desert. Even though you think you see it, it doesn’t exist. Maya can cause you to have an accident, but it cannot enlighten you. Maya is the reason you see the one absolute truth as many. The process of unlearning,   is about freedom from the conditioning or from the known. Unlearning things that are no longer useful can be an extreme form of changing, like an almost physical casting off of inner clothing.  Unlearning involves a conscious individual confrontation of the past with the future, involving paradigms or beliefs that come from the fully formed past at odds with those that come from a future, still in formation. If you need to fill up water in a bottle, the ( hot ) air which served the bottle well for long time, must be allowed to escape. Unlearning is about moving away from something rather than moving towards something. Unlearning is not about right or wrong. It is about being open to and exploring something that lies underneath the judgment, underneath the right and the wrong. The learning cycle, which should be a virtuous circle that positively feeds itself. Our habit of planning  in a particular way may have to worked wonderfully well in the past, but unknown to us, it has become a primary cause of our inability to adapt to changes in our context.  Even in mild  forms, these habits can become ingrained, comfort zones, addictions, hiding places of denial and self-protection. Often our ability to see something, to appreciate its true nature, is skewed or hidden by the judgement we give it, the pigeon-hole we have prepared for it. .Old ingrained habits that do not serve us take time to break and some may never be broken. Behind the fears live the memories that gave rise to them . The cat who fell in hot water is circumspect with cold water too. We cannot disprove our past or invalidate our memories. We go back and work gently with what happened, see the memories afresh and hopefully find the strength necessary to free ourselves from their power with active help from yoga. It is painful to unlearn those deep, hidden and sometimes painful patterns that mask and influence the way we do things. Added to this are soul samskaras ( phobias )  picked up from past lives. Ultimately, we have to acknowledge that it is not our methods, strategies, tools or techniques which define the core and quality of our development practice, but ourselves  our past, our present and our future, and the will we can find to face these. In Sanskrit when an ‘A’ is placed in front of a word it means ‘not’ or ‘without’ that word. So ‘A’ in front of vidya means not vidya. Vidya is a word used for the highest Truth, Knowledge, or Knowing. When one truly experiences the non-dual formless Consciousness, one really knows, one lives in vidya, one lives in knowing the Absolute Reality. Therefore avidya is a state that means you are not living in vidya, the truth is forgotten, is veiled, and therefore is it a state of ignorance of ignoring truth. To remove everything that is not vidya will bring the experience of vidya. Therefore it is the avidya that we have to deal with, get to know and move beyond. We need to un-color this coloring in order to find vidya. To say that we live in ignorance doesn’t mean that we are dumb or stupid, it is merely a realization that we are ignoring our true Self (that we live unconsciously while our true nature is pure Consciousness) and that this avidya needs to be removed. Avidya is all bad, because if the veil would be lifted all at once we would not be able to take it. Even our fives senses have narrow bandwidths and are squelched to prevent overload and breakdown.  We dont need to see the waves going from the TV remote to the TV.   There is so much unconscious movement underneath the veil that it would flood us if it would be presented to us at once, probably make us literally crazy. Therefore this veil is like a mother, who lovingly hides what we cannot take until we are ready to take the responsibility. When our responsibility grows we will be able to allow the unconscious movements to come forward and not get sucked into them. We would be able to know that these movements are not who we are and will be able to stay non-attached to them. Therefore, it appears as if avidya and vairagya are dancing to together. In the beginning avidya has the lead, lovingly keeps us protected as a mother, but slowly with practice vairagya will take over this dance until the whole veil can be lifted and the Self rests it its own nature. avidya is used when we speak of individual ignorance, and the word maya is used when we speak of cosmic illusion. The word maya is used is regard to Brahman, when the Absolute Reality seems to play as maya.   Mind you, these explanations are NOT for the shallow minded.

IX: They enter into blind darkness who worship Avidya (ignorance and delusion); they fall, as it were, into greater darkness who worship Vidya (knowledge).

X :By Vidya one end is attained; by Avidya, another. Thus we have heard from the wise men who taught this.

XI: He who knows at the same time both Vidya and Avidya, crosses over death by Avidya and attains immortality through Vidya. Those who follow or “worship” the path of selfishness and pleasure (Avidya), without knowing anything higher, necessarily fall into darkness; but those who worship or cherish Vidya (knowledge) for mere intellectual pride and satisfaction, fall into greater darkness, because the opportunity which they misuse is greater.-  Isha Upanishad 5000 BC

Om Purnamadah Purnamidam
Purnat Purnamudachyate
Purnasya Purnamadaya
Purnameva Vashishyate
Om shanti, shanti, shanti—  Isha Upanishad 5000 BC

Om. That is infinite, this is infinite;
From That infinite this infinite comes.
From That infinite, this infinite removed or added;
Infinite remains infinite.
Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

The path that avidya (or ignorance) leads one to and the path that vidya (or knowledge) takes one through are extremely different ones and are very far from each other. O Naciketas! I understand that you are the one in search of knowledge since you are not interested in fulfilling all the worldly, material desires that I offered to grant you. Those desires did not move you even an inch from your strong focus (of attaining the knowledge).  Katha Upanishad Chapter 2 Verse 4 -5000 BC

“When all things that have a beginning are ruled out, what remains is the truth – which is the cessation of avidya or ignorance. You may regard it as something or as no-thing: that is to be sought which is when ignorance has been dispelled. The sweetness one tastes is not experienced by another: listening to someone’s description of the cessation of avidya does not give you enlightenment. In short, avidya is the belief that there exists a reality which is not Brahman or cosmic consciousness. When there is the certain knowledge ‘This is indeed Brahman’, avidya ceases.” Yoga Vashista

2.25—tadabhavat sanyogabhavo hanan taddrisheh kaivalyam

The destruction of ignorance through right knowledge breaks the link binding the seer to the seen. This is kaivalya or emancipation.

By the removal of ignorance, conjunction is removed. This is the absolute freedom of the seer.This sutra explains the effect of breaking down the link that binds the knower to the known. At this point, the seen loses its hold and influence on the seer, miseries terminate and the soul is heightened to experience perfect freedom. Yoga is specifically designed to help one avert the sort of slips and errors in one's conduct which store up future sorrows, and it builds up one's strength, vitality and valour to deal with the inevitable problems of life. One is aware that one's mind turns more gladly to the world's pleasures than to the vision of the soul. It is a bridge between the senses and the spirit; it is a secret enemy, and a deceitful friend, which can change one's conduct without giving one time to consider. Patanjali advises the sadhaka to train the mind and encourage discrimination, so that objects and events are seen only for what they are, then they cannot gain power over one. This is exceedingly difficult, but an understanding of nature will help. Humans are matter (temporarily) and live surrounded by matter. Interaction with matter or nature is the condition of one's life. Without discrimination one cannot break free, but with understanding and practice one can use this interaction to reach highest peace and bliss. One should exercise discrimination and thereby realise that attachment to sense objects which give instant gratification is the cause of bondage and non-attachment to sense objects leads to liberation. So it is mandatory that infatuation with sense objects is renounced. One should not debase oneself clinging to the lower nature like the animals. Lord Krishna in Bhagawad Gita emphasises the changing nature of the mind. Attachment to worldly pleasures and hedonist values locks one to samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death while contrarily detachment from the infatuation of worldly pleasures frees one from samsara. 6000 years ago, in the middle of the battle field of Kurukshetra , Lord Krishna reveals the method of escaping perpetual incarceration in the material existence. The mind has the propensity to be one's dearest friend so why not utilise it to uplift oneself out of material darkness and into spiritual light. A controlled mind can accomplish so many beneficial endeavours for one's wellbeing. Whereas an uncontrolled mind is one's worst enemy performing base and degrading activities leading to destruction.When the mind is freed from attachments one becomes lucid and clear and the mind is like one's best benefactor. When the mind is disturbed by attachments it becomes distracted and distorted and the mind becomes one's worst malefactor.If one wants to experience heaven on earth, one has to grasp the qualities of nature, the gunas, i.e., the polarity of rajas and tamos, the eternal pulse of nature between movement and stillness, and the higher balancing state of sattva. Nature has degrees of subtlety. Sometimes it is more densely or unmistakably manifest than at others, and Patanjali analyses as follows. The four parts are - distinguishable (visesa), unspecified or universal (avisesa), phenomenal (lihga) and, beyond this, noumenal (alihga). The five energetic qualities of nature, the elements, are, with the senses of perception and organs of action, distinguishable; while the five counterparts of the elements, sound, touch, taste, sight and smell are without specific signs (alihga); so also is the ego (asmita). All these are subject to the gunas, which intermingle the behavioural patterns of an individual. If one understands the flow of these forces, one can reach balance, and from balance go on to true freedom. If not, one is swayed from one extreme to another, between pleasure and another pain. Yoga, says Patanjali, is the way to harmonise oneself at every level with the natural order of the universe, from the physical to the most subtle, to reach the total state of health which brings stability, to cultivate the mind with real understanding, and to reach out ultimately to undifferentiated infinity. The seer is an absolute knower - awareness personified. Though pure, it becomes entangled in the illusions of the mind, which are part of nature. Yet the vehicles of nature are all there to help the seer to experience serene, pristine, divine purity. Then, the elements of nature and their counterparts ebb and unite in the root of nature, mula-prakrti.Perfection is attained when the intellect becomes as pure as the Atman itself. When the soul realises that it is absolutely independent and it does not depend on anything else in this world, this highest knowledge, Kaivalya, Isolation or perfect independence comes inhe soul feels that it is ever free, unchanging, immortal, beginningless, endless, infinite, beyond time, space and causation, full of bliss, peace and knowledge. The Purusha is an embodiment of intelligence. He is ever pure and eternally free. He is always the silent witness of the play of Prakriti. Through intellect, the Purusha appears as if seeing, although really he never sees or does anything. The qualities of intellect are superimposed on the Purusha.  Just as the real colour of the flower appears on the transparent crystal, so also the qualities of Buddhi appear on the Purusha. Hence, the Purusha appears to be happy or miserable. The Purusha unites with the Buddhi and enjoys the different objects. This is the cause for human sufferings. Ignorance is the cause for this conjunction. This Prakriti and Purusha are united from time immemorial. If this union is separated, the Purusha recognises his original, divine glory. The original conjunction is the union of Purusha with the Buddhi. Through Buddhi, he is united with body. He mistakes this perishable body for the real Purusha. Through this body, he gets united with wife, children, relatives and friends. The whole Samsara has started now. Disconnect yourself from the Prakriti and become a Mukta Purusha. This is the essential teaching of Raja Yoga.Spiritual detachment is isolation from transient desires and discarding shackles binding our body and mind to the world. When we approach the Divine, we escape the gravitational pull of worldly desires, and leap into an infinite dimension, free from material cravings and illusion of self-love. He who would be serene and pure needs but one thing, detachment. With detachment comes freedom of the mind from the material world, but at the same time, attachment to the Divine becomes even more essential. This is not the FAKE Bhakti Yoga thingy where singers keep wandering around singing praises of god and doing nothing else. Laws of Karma rule, they is no moksha without making the karmic baggage zero.

2.26— vivekakhyatiraviplava hanopayah

The ceaseless flow of discriminative knowledge in thought, word and deed destroys ignorance, the source of pain.

One must continually separate truth from untruth.   The means to liberation is uninterrupted discriminative discernment.   The steady flow of deep, discriminating awareness unravels the avidya (illusion) and leads to the liberation of purusa. The root word viveka means discrimination, meaning this deeper, discriminating awareness (vivekakhyatih) is the kind of knowledge that is beyond the senses. This knowledge is also beyond our intellect, and even our highest perception. Once we lift the veil of maya, our knowledge becomes even clearer, and we experience kaivalya, or liberation. Un-fluctuating sound judgement with unremitting awareness is the essence of true knowledge, the only means to eliminate ignorance and free the seer from the seen. It should always be kept in the highest state of awareness and attentiveness, known as vivekakhyati, the crown of wisdom.  The seeds of false knowledge need to be burnt up through unremitting yogic practices to maintain an unbroken flow of discriminative intelligence. Viveka is uninterrupted discrimination.  Adi Shankaracharya defines Viveka as discrimination; wisdom or Buddhi made active. In this seventh chapter, Sri Krishna emphasizes the need to translate knowledge into a living reality by practising it, i.e., the knowledge acquired through the higher mind has to be realized. In Viveka Chudamani, Adi Shankaracharya  says that foolish is the man who does not strive after freedom from bondage—after obtaining, at last, a human birth.  “Therefore let the wise one strive after Freedom, giving up all longing for sensual self-indulgence; approaching the good, great Teacher (the Higher Self) with soul intent on the object of the teaching”. (Verse 8).  Viveka is the discrimination between the real and the unreal, the permanent and the non-permanent, Atman and Anatma.  In Kaivalyopanishad, Brahma tells Ashwalayana, who wanted to acquire knowledge of the ultimate truth, "By faith, devotion and meditation you can understand the ultimate truth."  You must first develop Viveka or discrimination between the real and the unreal and Vairagya (dispassion)  for the enjoyment of objects herein and hereafter/ Vairagya born of Viveka only will be of a lasting nature. Such a Vairagya only will be helpful to you in your spiritual practices.

2.27—  tasya saptadhaa prantabhoomih prajna

Through this unbroken flow of discriminative awareness, one gains perfect knowledge which is composed of seven spheres.

According to Patanjali, the seven states of conscious awareness are - emerging consciousness (vyutthana citta), restraining consciousness (nirodha cittta), sprouted or individualised consciousness (nirmana cittta), tranquil consciousness (prasanta citta), attentive consciousness (ekagrata citta), fissured or rent consciousness (chidra citta) and ripe or pure consciousness (paripakva or divya citta).  Samyama means  integration.  Dharana, dhyana (the seventh limb), and samadhi (the eighth limb) taken together compose samyama. By the practice of Samyama, the Yogi gets knowledge and powers. Patanjali says that samadhi appears when we are able to let go of our mental machinations, samskaras (past psychic imprints), klesha (afflictive emotions), karma (programming), vasana (habitual tendencies), and similar habitual impositions of conditioning and conditioned belief systems, which support the citta-vrtti (spinning or slant/tilt of the mindfield). Since samadhi is essentially nirvikalpa (beyond concepts), and since concepts are built upon words, then obviously the words have to be let go. Dhyana (meditation) brings forth the dawning of an extraordinary transpersonal (more rarefied than the most subtle) consciousness which can not be brought about without the complete stilling (nirodha) of the ordinary mind which is constantly being modified, colored, and disturbed (yogash citta-vrtti-nirodah). The profound and sacred trans-rational (nirvikalpa), trans-cognitive (asamprajnata) and all encompassing non-dual truth of Reality-As-It-Is is self revealing once the doors of perception are opined -- once the practitioner gets in touch with the intrinsic light of wisdom within and the veil is lifted. various applications of samyama can lead to the siddhis (accomplishments, abilities, masteries, and powers), but they are not to be seen as attainments because no ego attains or possess it.  The yogi’s true insight has seven ultimate stages. There are seven frontiers to be integrated between the seen (prakrti) and the seer (purusa). They comprise - integration of the body (safira samyama), the senses (indriya samyama), energy (prana samyama), mind (mano samyama), intellect (buddhi samyama), consciousness (citta samyama) and soul (atma samyama), each realising its own individual identity. Expertise in yoga will bring this sevenfold knowledge. 

2.28—  yogangganushthanad ashuddhikshaye jnanadiptira vivekakhyateh

By dedicated practice of the various aspects of yoga, impurities are destroyed - the vision of wisdom radiates in glory.

Patanjali summarises the effects of yoga in this one sutra. He says that by habitual and dedicated practice, impurities of the sadhaka's body and mind are consumed, the causes of adversaries removed and the crown of wisdom is acquired. This wisdom and accomplishment keeps the sadhaka guiltless and free of conceit. Here, instead of the usual word abhyasa (repeated practice), anusthana is used. It is a venerable and noble word with a spiritual significance, implying practice with dedication or religious commitment. The former brings stability; the latter develops maturity of intelligence. Yoga can cure or diminish one's physical, mental, moral and spiritual woes. Perfection and success are certain only if one practises with love and whole-hearted dedication. Upon the destruction of impurities as a result of the practice of yoga, the lamp of knowledge arises. This culminates in discriminative discernment. By the practice of yoga, impurities are destroyed. These impurities,  are nothing but the five kleshas – avidya (ignorance), asmita (egoism), raga (likes), dvesha (dislikes), and abhinivesha (fear of death) – discussed earlier. When impurities are removed, the light of full knowledge (jnana-dipti) shines through. Starting with this sutra, Patanjali shifts the focus from the highly theoretical discussion to a practical approach for the attainment of the goals and objectives of yoga. Because of the wide acceptance of these eight limbs of yoga, Patanjali’s yoga is often referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" or the "eight limbs of yoga".  In Sutra 2.26 Patanjali stated that the state of "viveka khyati" (discriminative wisdom) is the cause for the elimination of ignorance which leads to the apparent union between Purusha and Prakriti. In the current sutra, he lays out the means to get to that state of viveka khyati. Patanjali uses the term khyati  to mean  expound, so clearly that no ambiguity remains. khyati refers to the aspect of knowledge that clearly describes the defining characteristics of its object. By using this term,Patanjali is telling us that avidya-driven union comes to an end when our knowledge regarding the union of purusha and prakriti is crystal clear. Merely knowing that prakriti is the material cause of the universe and purusha is pure consciousness does not free us from misery. Such knowledge is purely intellectual, vague, and devoid of any practical substance. Khyati is totally different. It sheds such a powerful light on both purusha and prakriti that we realize instantly what we are. In the light of khyati, we know ourselves. We also know precisely what purusha and prakriti are, what caused them to embrace each other blindly and seemingly aimlessly, and what holds them together. At the dawn of this knowledge (khyati), we regain our faith and trust in ourselves. This gives us the strength to distinguish the real from the unreal, lasting happiness from short-lived pleasure, and true freedom from mere escape.This strength is called viveka shakti, the power of discrimination. This extraordinary knowledge (khyati), accompanied by the power of discrimination (viveka), here is termed viveka-khyati, the purest means of bringing this avidya-driven union to an end. Patanjali reminds us that this discerning knowledge (viveka-khyati) has to be strong and mature enough to withstand the test of time. We attain discerning knowledge with the help of meditation, self-examination, self-inquiry, and divine grace. After attaining this knowledge, we must make it firm with practice. We must not become careless. We must never forget how deceptive and powerful the veils of maya are; how undetectable her ways are of influencing our mind; and how important it is to safeguard and further nourish our newly discovered discerning knowledge.. Practice of these eight limbs of yoga serves as the cause in two categories – elimination of impurities and attainment of discriminative wisdom. Nine types of causes that are mentioned in the scriptures are:--Utpatti: production, Sthiti: maintenance, Abhivyakti: manifestation, expression, Vikāra: transmutation, modification, Pratyaya: cognition, Āpti: attainment, Viyoga: separation, Anyatva: otherness, differentiation, Dhṛti : sustenance ..Practice of the limbs of yoga is applicable as a cause for viyoga (separation of impurities) and apti (attainment of discriminative wisdom). Viveka-khyati is the complete opposite of avidya and is even more active. Discerning knowledge destroys our unwillingness to see the truth. It provides the courage to see the truth and gives us the strength and insight to see our deeply rooted habits (samskaras) and replace them with the samskaras of selfrealization (purusha-khyati/ atma-khyati). Discerning knowledge metamorphoses into an intense and irresistible desire (tiara samvega) to see and experience the absolute independence of consciousness (kaivalyam). The samskara created by this desire blocks all other desires. It grants us complete mastery over the mind and the subtle impressions deposited in the mind—as well as the binding and releasing forces of the mind that cause us to live in the world either miserably or happily. In other words, this knowledge contains an unprecedented level of revelation. When it dawns fully, the whole range of truth is available in its purity and perfection

2.29— yamaniyamasanapranayamapratyaharadharanadhy anasamadhayo-a-shtava anggani

Moral injunctions (yama), fixed observances (niyama), posture (asana), regulation of breath (pranayama), internalisation of the senses towards their source (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and absorption of consciousness in the self (samadhi), are the eight constituents of yoga.

This sutra sets out the eightfold path of yoga (astahgayoga), which Patanjali continues to describe in detail in the remaining sutras of sadhana pada. Restraints and observances that are bound by tradition and lineage follow uninterruptedly in the practice of yoga. Although asana, pranayama and pratyahara are separate entities, they depend on one another for expressing the hidden aspects of yoga. These stages, which enable the seeker to heighten in the art of yoga, are called progressive sadhana. Through them one achieves a higher and even more higher state. The first five aspects of yoga are individual efforts for the evolution of the consciousness, while dharana, dhyana and samadhi are the universal manifestation or the natural states of yoga (yoga svaritpa). The practice of yoga is an art and science dedicated to creating union between body, mind and spirit. Its objective is to assist the practitioner in using the breath and body to foster an awareness of ourselves as individualized beings intimately connected to the unified whole of creation. In short it is about making balance and creating equanimity so as to live in peace, good health and harmony with the greater whole. It is important to perform all the eight limbs successfully to attain the objective of yoga.

2.30— ahinsasatyasteyabrahmacharyaparigraha yamah

Non-violence, truth, abstention from stealing, continence, and absence of greed for possessions beyond one's need are the five pillars of yama.

The principle of yama involves wishing no harm in word, thought or deed; being sincere, truthful and honest; not stealing or misappropriating another's wealth or possessions; celibacy; and not accepting gifts or possessing only what one needs, without being avaricious. These rules and restraints are laid down clearly for one to live in society while remaining a yoga practitioner. The Yamas are nonviolence, truthfulness, refrainment from stealing, celibacy, and renunciation of ( unnecessary and superfluous )  possessions. The first two limbs that Patanjali describes are the fundamental ethical precepts called yamas, and the niyamas.   These can also be looked at as universal morality and personal observances. Yamas and niyamas are the suggestions given on how we should deal with people around us and our attitude toward ourselves. The attitude we have toward things and people outside ourselves is yama, how we relate to ourselves inwardly is niyama. Both are mostly concerned with how we use our energy in relationship to others and to ourselves. The yamas are broken down into five "wise characteristics." Rather than a list of dos and don’ts,  they tell us that our fundamental nature is compassionate, generous, honest and peaceful. Being the first limb of yoga, the five yamas are the foundation of spiritual life on which the super-structure of samadhi is built. Following the yamas means sticking to ideals and principles. It is about development of positive traits that will transform the human nature into a divine nature and annihilate cravings and negative qualities. When the yamas are truly practised, the heart is filled with cosmic love, goodness and light. There is a deliberate order in the five yamas. Ahimsa (non-violence) comes first because one must remove one’s brutal nature first. One must become non-violent and develop cosmic love. Only then does one become fit for the practice of yoga. Then comes satya or truthfulness. The whole phenomenon of maya or illusion is asat or unreal and the aspirant should be aware of this fact. He should ever remember the truth or Brahman. Next comes asteya or non-stealing. As one must develop moral consciousness, one must know right from wrong, righteousness from unrighteousness, and one must know that all is one. Brahmacharya or continence ( it has nothing to do with sex ) , which is the fourth yama, is a divine attribute. The aspirant is now becoming superhuman through its practice. The fifth is aparigraha, non-covetousness. The yogic student is now free from cravings, unnecessary wants, the desire to possess and enjoy, and his heart has expanded manifold.Yamas ( universal morality)  are as follows:-- 1. AHIMSA– Compassion for all living things. Ahimsa means you also do NOT approve of a evil man’s cruel actions of himsa and watch injustice as a coward and a impotent man—this is part of  ahimsa in its purest form. Ahimsa is not causing pain, not non-killing.. Himsa means to cause pain. Causing pain through words or thoughts can be even more harmful than killing. Ahimsa was the main theme of Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement in bringing freedom to India from the British. And he made sure that Jew Rotshchild robbed Bharatmata blind, while we ghumaaoed the charkha like napunksaks . Ahimsa as not injuring any living creature anywhere at any time within the perimeters of  dharma.  One must continue to perform one’s dharma even though it might mean killing , harmful enemies. Yogis should abstain from eating meat which involves nourishing one’s body by eating the flesh of other living beings. Being a vegetarian is an absolute requirement for an aspiring yogi. Ahimsa also encompasses giving up thoughts of malice and hatred as these produce tendency to hurt others through words or actions. The word ahimsa literally mean not to injure or show cruelty to any creature or any person in any way whatsoever. Ahimsa is, however, more than just lack of violence as adapted in yoga. It means kindness, friendliness, and thoughtful consideration of other people and things. It also has to do with our duties and responsibilities too. Ahimsa implies that in every situation we should adopt a considerate attitude . On the spiritual path, the first step is to eliminate the beastly nature. The predominant trait in beasts is cruelty; therefore, the wise sages prescribed ahimsa as the first yama. Ahimsa is positive love. It is to abstain from the slightest thought of harm to any living creature. The practitioner must abandon even unkind looks and scowls. There is no excuse or exception to the above rule. Harsh words to vulnerable people and  inferiors is himsa (cruelty). To fail to relieve pain or trouble in another is negative himsa. To approve of another’s harsh actions is also against ahimsa. So practise ahimsa in its purest form. 2. SATYA – Commitment to truthfulness . Speech should not be deceitful, misleading or devoid of value. It should benefit  and not harm anybody. As Manu says in his Manusmriti, "Let him not speak what is true but unkind; let him not speak what is kind but untrue". A common example quoted is the one from Mahabharata where when Drona asks of Yudhishthira (righteous son of dharma, known to speak the truth always) if his son, Ashwatthama was dead, Yudhishthira simply replied "yes, Ashwatthama is dead". This was truthful to the extent that the elephant by that name had died. However, the meaning conveyed to Drona was that his son had died. This is considered as misleading as it lead to great harm to Drona and his downfall. Satya means "to speak the truth," yet it is not always desirable to speak the truth on all occasions, for it could harm someone unnecessarily. We have to consider what we say, how we say it, and in what way it could affect others. If speaking the truth has negative consequences for another, then it is better to say nothing.  It is no use telling your wellwisher that you saw his mother in a whorehouse around the time he was conceived.  Satya should never come into conflict with our efforts to behave with ahimsa. This precept is based on the understanding that honest communication and action form the bedrock of any healthy relationship, community, or government, and that deliberate deception, exaggerations, and mistruths harm others.   Thought must agree with word and word with action. This is truthfulness. There is no room for hypocrisy. To think of one thing, say another and do another is nothing but crookedness. By telling lies you pollute your conscience and infect your subconscious mind. Truth means the strength to abide by positive principles. Speak the truth, but let it not be unpleasant and speak not any pleasing falsehood – this is eternal religion. It is said that if you speak the truth for twelve years, you will acquire vak siddhi, whatever you say will come to pass. There will be great power in your speech, you will be able to influence thousands. If you are established in truth, all other virtues will cling to you. Truth is like the brilliant sun, how long can you hide it ?   3. ASTEYA is not taking things belonging to others and not even having a desire to do so. Having a desire may ultimately lead one to stealing. Even if you find a treasure trove of jewels it should not be taken as it doesn’t belong to you. Steya means "to steal"; asteya is the opposite-to take nothing that does not belong to us. This also means that if we are in a situation where someone entrusts something to us or confides in us, we do not take advantage of him or her. Non-stealing includes not only taking what belongs to another without permission, but also using something for a different purpose to that intended, or beyond the time permitted by its owner.   The practice of asteya implies not taking anything that has not been freely given. This includes fostering a consciousness of how we ask for others’ time for inconsiderate behavior demanding another’s attention when not freely given is, in effect, stealing. Asteya is another form of self-restraint. Why does a person steal? He wants something. When he cannot get it by legitimate means, he steals it. Desire, thirst or trishna is the root cause of stealing. You remove a thing secretly without the knowledge of the owner and you do not want others to know of this act. This is stealing. Taking paper, pencil, etc. from the office is stealing. Hoarding too much money, eating too much, adding to your cravings are all forms of stealing. A yogic student must be free from all these forms of theft. Even a sensitive mind becomes blunt by continuous stealing. Even a little dirt, a little theft affects the mind of a yogic student seriously. He will have to be very careful. Then alone will he have success in yoga.  4. BRAHMACHARYA is sense control and sexual responsibility . It has nothing to do with abstaining from sex or a ridiculous withholding discharge of semen even when sexually aroused  ( like what Gandhi did , sleeping under the same blanket with naked underage girls ). Brahmacharya does not necessarily imply celibacy as marital fidelity and dispassion from hedonism comes under brahmacharya .  Rather, it means responsible behavior with respect to our goal of moving toward the truth.  Brahmacharya is celibacy in thought, word and deed.  Brahmacharya is divine conduct.  Don't waste the sacred force by promiscuity in thought, word or deed. Be restrained with the opposite sex. Seek company of elevated souls. Dress and speak modestly. Shun pornography and crass sexual humor.  Swami Vivekananda gave us Jew Rothschild’s  bullshit — that power comes to him who observes unbroken Brahmacharya for a period of twelve years.  And he claimed he was one of those .  He wrote that complete sexual continence gives great intellectual and spiritual power and we can transform the sexual energy into spiritual energy- which  is pure bullshit.  Vivekananda attributed his phenomenal mental powers to a lifelong observance of brahmacharya (an extreme stage of irreversible sexual celibacy).   Sorry, this nonsense is not Sanatana Dharma. In his Raja Yoga, the Swami Vikananda gives bull - that through brahmacharya sex energy is converted into a higher form of psychic energy called ‘ojas.’ Ojas, literally meaning the ‘illuminating’ or ‘bright’ is the highest form of energy in the human body. In the spiritual aspirant who constantly practises continence and purity, other forms of energy are transmuted into ojas and stored in the brain, expressing as spiritual and intellectual power. Swami Vivekananda who claimed to be a brahmachari wrote “ A man who wants to be a perfect Yogi must give up the sex idea. The Soul has no sex; why should it degrade itself with sex ideas? –this is unadulterated bullshit which is not supported by Sananata Dharma. The white invader gave bull –that according to Ayurveda semen is the last Dhatu that is formed out of Majja or marrow. From food chyle (Rasa) is manufactured. Out of chyle comes blood (Rakta); out of blood comes flesh; out of flesh comes fat: out of fat comes marrow; out of marrow comes semen. These are the seven Dhatus.   Sorry, this bullshit is NOT Kerala Ayurveda. The most foul thing done was to encourage married men in Grihasta stage to practice Brahmacharya by sexual continence.   Gandhi used this lame lie , to discard his wife from his bedroom and take in a homosexual jew with an enema kit  .Later this German Jew was discarded to take in teenaged naked girls who would sleep with him under the same blanket and give Gandhi enema twice a day and vice versa. Rothschild got his fake and backdated Rishi Yajnavalkya to write:   “Brahmacharya is abstaining from sexual pleasure for ever, under all conditions and in all places, either physically, mentally or verbally.”Brahmacharya is about restraint ( avoiding looking down a plunging neckline ) and not suppression of sexual desire. In restraint no sexual thought will arise in the mind. What is wanted is restraint and not suppression of sexual desire. In restraint no sexual thought will arise in the mind. There is perfect sublimation of sexual energy. But in suppression the aspirant is not safe. When favourable opportunities occur, the repressed desire manifests with redoubled force and there is danger of a miserable downfall. What is wanted is deep inner life. Open yourself to higher spiritual consciousness. Feel the divine presence and divine guidance in your life.. Do not hide your thoughts. Pray for light, purity, strength, peace and knowledge. You will be established in brahmacharya. Kama refers to all the desires in man for the enjoyment and satisfaction and sensual gratification of the five human senses. Kama could be music or being creative or team spirit in sport or travelling to places of natural beauty or sitting with family at the beach or riding a fast horse or participating in a arrow shooting contest  - anything which brings delight to human life and spirit . It has absolutely nothing to do with lust and sexual orgasm.   Kama would refer to the totality of the innate desires and drives of man-  motivations of man. Kama refers to the instinctive and emotional life of man, and provides for the satisfaction of his aesthetic urges.

I do not consider Swami Vivekananda competent to speak about love . Brahmacharya is restraining from perverse lust and unnatural sex.  A brahmachari can make love to his wife whom he loves . A lot of fake gurus are homosexuals and claim to be brahmacharis just because in their passport there is no wife’s name. Homosexuals are notoriously unstable and unreliable.  Marriage and family  is the natural path for humans by will of god.   Today if you marry a chutnet Mary , she has nothing left to exchange for love but sex. Lust is just temporary commitment  that last only long enough to fulfill the base desire.  Lust is only interested is self pleasure as it is basically sexual greed. Lust is physical chemistry over a short period of time.  It is filled with desire, passion, acquisitiveness and intense animal emotions-everything which yoga tells to shun. Lust is what a man feels when he goes to a whore. Lust produces NO deep emotional bonding, what you feel when you love a person. Lust is an infatuation, while love keeps people together long after the infatuation has faded. . Love is an intense feeling of affection and care towards another person. If your partner is the first person that you think about when you want to share your innermost thoughts, then you may be in love. There is a great willingness to make sacrifices for another and working at settling differences. Love creates commitment to another and intentions are genuine intentions.  You don’t make an ass out of a person you love. Love fosters security, peace, inner happiness and a stable , solid partnership which can provide the ideal atmosphere to raise confident, content and secure children. Love is unconditional and the real deal. Love sees a bright future together . There is this feeling that your life would be totally empty without her. You want to introduce her to your family  . It becomes suddenly important to you that your parents like her, and that she gets along with everyone close to you.  You include her in all your plans . She challenges and motivates you.  She makes you happy, and you'd do anything to make her happy. If you’re truly hoping to find love, remember that love has to be nurtured like a plant. Lust is like a fart-breaking wind. Real love brings out the best in people. You know that it is LOVE when you do NOT need to get physical to feel connected to the other person. You feel complete and happy just holding her hand or talking to her. If at all you have sex with such a person you love, it is mind blowing literally an explosion of divine passion. Love accepts things as it is . The woman does NOT see the need to wear make up or put plastic in her tits to hold on to her man. In India no woman puts plastic in her tits ( or upper lip )  to hold on to her husband . The difference between love and lust is the attitude of your heart. If you’re in love, the attitude of your heart is one of selflessness, with the other person as your focus, whereas if you are in lust the attitude of your heart will be one of selfishness, with yourself as the focus. True love is driven by a divine desire to provide for, nurture and care for the other persons needs.  Love is when you want to do all you can for someone not expecting anything in return at all. We had Sri Sri Ravishankar promoting homosexuality recently. What does this unmarried man know of love. He calls himself a brahmachari, just because he is NOT married. Love is the foundation of stable societies—only. Yoga sustained stable societies. Lust is amazingly self serving, love is unlimited and unselfish,  and although love doesn't exclude lust, it's handy to know the difference between the two.   Sanatana Dharma has never promoted sexual repression.  No man could do a yagna unless he was married with a living wife.

Jew Rothschild made a Kerala Prince Raja Ravi Varma paint all his FAKE and backdated creations.  One is Ahalya. Ahalya is discussed like Radha in almost all desh drohi literary fests. They argue ( till the cows come home )  why Rama frees Ahalya from being cursed for adultery, but punishes his wife Sita over false accusations of adultery with her kidnapper, Ravana.FAKE sex starved adultress  Ahalya has been injected into a lot of our ancient scriptures.  In reality Ahalya is unploughed land which Indra made fertile. Ahilya, is the wife of the sage Gautama Maharishi. Many Hindu scriptures say that she was seduced by Indra (the king of gods), cursed by her husband for infidelity, and liberated from the curse by Rama (an avatar of the god Vishnu). Ahalya was married to the much older Gautama. In the earliest full narrative, when Indra comes disguised as her husband, Ahalya sees through his disguise but nevertheless accepts his advances. Later sources often absolve her of all guilt, describing how she falls prey to Indra's trickery. In all narratives, Ahalya and Indra are cursed by Gautama. Ahalya is cursed to become a stone and regains her human form after she is brushed by Rama's foot. The Bala Kanda mentions that Gautama spots  a hiding under the bed Indra ( in the form of a cat ), who is still in disguise, and curses him to lose his balls which injected sperm into his wife-. and to bear a thousand twats  on his body for good measure . At JNU the commie professors cooks up more and more masala every year.  How Ahalya turns back into stone after hearing that Sita had to undergo a trial by fire to prove her chastity. And the commie professors  even made Ahalya screw around with Surya.   How Ahalya’s daughter spilled the beans to her father Gautama , and how  an angry , Ahalya curses Anjani to give birth to a monkey –which is our Hanuman.. Rothschild used his agent Tagore to include Ahalya in his poems . Devadasis were made to dance on the Ahalya theme. Nobody in India heard of Ahalya till the white invader came to India. I learnt about Ahalya in my NCERT Hindi book of Kendriya Vidyalaya.

5. APARIGRAHA is renunciation of unnecessary possessions.Aparigraha is the ability to see the problems caused by acquisition, preservation, and destruction of things, since these provoke attachment and injury. Possessions produce samskaras which activate in the future to cause distress if we can’t acquire items desired by us or losing the items that we possess. Yogis are advised to acquire only what is required for basic maintenance and give up all else. Parigraha is covetousness or greed. Aparigraha is a mental state in which the sensual craving is dead. Parigraha leads to anxiety to preserve, fear of loss, hatred, anger, untruthfulness, stealing, etc. Aparigraha puts an end to all these and bestows peace and contentment. It removes at one stroke fear, attachment, disappointment, anxiety, jealousy, anger, lust and depression. Aparigraha is indeed an aid to the practice of ahimsa, satya and asteya. When the craving is not satisfied you become angry, you hate the person who stands in your way of attaining things. You harm him in different ways, speak untruth and begin to steal things. Aparigraha removes all these. It is the foundation of all yogas, just as dhyana or meditation is the meeting point of all yogas. Neutralizing the desire to acquire and hoard wealth . The yamas are the moral virtues which, if attended to, purify human nature and contribute to health and happiness of society. Yoga is rooted in the notion of developing a positive personality. Therefore ethical discipline or the practice of correct conduct is necessary for success in yoga. This is the basis of yama and niyama, the two moral backbones of yoga. They define the attributes to be practised in everyday life by a spiritual aspirant. Yama is the first limb of Patanjali’s ashtanga yoga and means ‘taking a vow’ while niyama is the second limb and means ‘rule of conduct’. Yama and niyama are inter-dependent. Niyama strengthens and safeguards yama. For example, if one is contented, one will not steal, hurt others or tell lies and will find it easy to practise non-covetousness.  When one is sufficiently advanced in the practices of yamas and niyamas, one can face every temptation by calling in the aid of pure and restraining thoughts. When the mind becomes pure it attains the state of steadiness and becomes one-pointed. If these positive qualities are not cultivated, the mind cannot be led to steadiness. One needs to be well established in yama-niyama to attain perfection in yoga. When one is perfectly established in them, samadhi will come by itself.

2.31— jatideshakalasamayanavachchhinnah sarvabhauma mahavratam

Yamas are the great, mighty, universal vows, unconditioned by place, time and class.

In this sutra Patanjali emphasizes  that the five yamas are absolute, non-negotiable and universal for yogis and cannot be exempted under any circumstance such as class, place, time, or circumstance. The five components of yama are called 'mighty universal vows', because they are not trammeled to class, place, time or notion of duty. They must be followed unconditionally by everyone, and by students of yoga particularly, irrespective of origin and situation, with a reservation concerning cultural phenomena like religious ceremonies, vows and vocations of certain people. They form the skeleton of rules on which society is grounded. It is however of the belief that this universal approach should be applied to all the other component stages of yoga, without discrimination of time, place or circumstances, to lay down the principles of a universal culture. For full-time, dedicated yogis, these vows (of yamas) are not be broken under any circumstance limited by time, place, purpose, social or caste rules, winter, summer, morning, evening etc. For yogis not committed to their yogic goals, these vows can be modified according to their position in life. There are exceptions to yamas.  A fisherman due to his occupation needs to inflict violence only on fish but nowhere else. Kshatriyas, the warrior class,  are allowed violence for protecting the watan from evil invaders who want to loot, rape women and make people slaves.  We Indians were slaves for 800 years , first to invading Muslims and then to the white Christian.  Jew Rothschild had his agent Gandhi telling us to ghumao charka while the white invader robbed Bharatmata blind and converted India from the riches  to the poorest in 250 years flat.. Gandhi cheated Bharatmata.  As per Patanjali, if a Kshatriya wishes to be a yogi, he must abandon violence altogether even though it may be condoned based on some sacred scriptures. In the Karma-yoga section of Bhagavad Gita, Krishna exhorts Arjuna to do his duty as a Kshatriya and engage in violent warfare and kill his near and dear . This may be acceptable in a socio-civic context, but must be renounced in an ascetic path of yoga. It may be argued that once avidya (ignorance) has been removed, one can act from a position of enlightenment and may engage in violence in certain circumstances (war, for example); however, Patanjali makes it clear that no such exception can be made for one on the path to enlightenment. Patanjali would like to make it clear that even though one’s dharma may dictate violating one or more of these yamas, for a yogi they must be treated as great vows, never to be violated. Yamas, and its complement, Niyamas, represent a series of "right living" or ethical rules.  They are a form of moral imperatives, commandments, rules or goals. The Yamas are the "don't do these" list of self-restraints, typically representing commitments that affect one's relations with others and self. The complementary Niyamas represent the "do these" list of observances, and together Yamas and Niyamas are personal obligations to live well. The earliest mention of the word Yamas is in the 7000 year old Rigveda. The Yamas apply broadly and include self-restraints in one's actions, words and thoughts. Yama is the very foundation of Yoga, without which the superstructure of Yoga cannot be built. Practice of Yama is really the practice of Sadachara (right conduct). Manu says: Ahimsa satyasteyam sauchamindriya nigraha - harmlessness, truth speaking, refraining from theft, control of senses; this is the essence of Dharma. Great emphasis is given in every chapter of the Gita on the practice of Yama. The ten yamas listed by Śāṇḍilya Upanishad, are:--Ahiṃsā (अहिंसा): Nonviolence,Satya (सत्य): truthfulness,Asteya (अस्तेय): not stealing,Brahmacharya (ब्रह्मचर्य): chastity,marital fidelity or sexual restraint,Kṣamā (क्षमा): forgiveness,Dhṛti (धृति): fortitude, Dayā (दया): compassion,Ārjava (आर्जव): non-hypocrisy, sincerity,Mitāhāra (मितहार): measured diet, Śauca (शौच): purity, cleanliness