Tuesday, June 16, 2015

ETHOS, LOGOS, PATHOS - CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL






Dr. usha kapuria
April 1, 2015 at 7:33 AM
oh it is wonderful.You got revealed to me at this very point of time.Your topics are great.My stories also veer around human pathos.Hope you could assess them.You are brilliant

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Capt. Ajit Vadakayil
April 1, 2015 at 8:04 AM
hi uk,

the roof of pathos ( emotions ) cannot deliver on its own in a truth exhuming blog site.

it has to be laid on a foundation of ethos ( trust )

supported by walls made of logos ( consistency )

to hold the INTEREST of a vast multinational audience ( whom you bollock hour after hour ) you need pathos .

any idiot can hold the ATTENTION -- only a chosen few can hold the interest .

and the authors who were sponsored by big brother -- they have all fallen by the wayside in this internet age.

have you seen the pathetic JOKERS on main stream media ?

they are like the flea ridden cats at port royale , discussing how the treasure should be divided and which pirate should get what. the pirates do NOT even know that these mangy cats exist.

like body/ mind and soul -- every piece of prose must have ethos/ pathos / logos.

without pathos poetry cannot exist.

check out the worlds greatest poets sponsored by big brother -- do you see any pathos ?

a perceptive soul verily said - "the heart has reasons that the mind knows not of." -- statistics may fall, arguments may fall short -- pathos never fails.

only IDIOTS like winston churchill think pathos is rhetoric

capt ajit vadakayil
..







Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,
And grievously hath Caesar answer'd it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest--
For Brutus is an honourable man;
So are they all, all honourable men--
Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?
When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause:
What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him?
O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason. Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.



In his Rhetorica Aristotle identifies the three canonical modes of artistic proof:  ethos, pathos and logos on grounds that, in order to persuade, one must exude good character, move the audience by appealing to emotions, and, of course, advance good reasons. 

Aristotle lifted his ideas from the DIALECTICS, METAPHYSICS , EPISTEMOLOGY, EMPIRICISM of the Indian Vedas and Upanishads penned down 7000 years ago.





THE ROOF OF PATHOS CANNOT BE LAID WITHOUT THE FOUNDATION OF ETHOS AND THE WALLS OF LOGOS..   NO BOOK OR WEBSITE TILL DATE , HAS THE PERCEPTION TO MENTION THIS.









A CHANGE MANAGER must know the art of persuasion.    

Half wits  cannot be change managers.

I have been a change manager at sea.

I KEPT PATHOS OUT OF THE EQUATION.

TRAGEDY KINGS GET A KICK ON THEIR BACK SIDES,  AS A TOOL OF PERSUASION.






As captain of ships for 3 decades , I never travelled on the beaten track.

I had my own ULTRA effective way – it is known as humor management. 

I would have all on my ship eating from my left palm.  

All my shore bosses wondered what mysterious magic captain used – for my method had zilch logos and pathos ..

- it had only ethos — my own fuckin’ credibility.




43 years ago, while on my training ship ( with 250 cadets )  I won the first prize in English reporting .

I chose a drab subject like a live drill while inflating a life raft alongside the training ship.  I just packed the essay with PATHOS.  

I knew I would get the prize.

So what is PATHOS ?

Punch into Google search –

OLD ALUMNI MEET

You will note that my post is first among 28 million posts .


Read it and watch the videos. 

The sentences TWANG your heart and soul strings – yes , PATHOS does this.





Mother Teresa used PATHOS to fool the whole world.




Above: Dollar bhejo phataphat !

Mother Teresa ran a global money spinning conglomerate with NIL core values - she kept her Calcutta poor home as an open sore




Everybody talks about persuasion by LOGOS and PATHOS to get a job done.

But if you have leadership spirit ETHOS alone is good enough..



Well, well, what do they know !






A leader’s pathos ignites hope, his ethos stirs unbridled faith, his logos deals in hard reality.




AT SEA , AS A SHIPS CAPTAIN FOR 3 DECADES, MY ETHOS WAS SO HUGE (LITERALLY- CAPTAINs SHIT DOES NOT SMELL ) THAT MANY OF MY SHORE BOSSES WHO GAVE ME A BAD SERVICE REPORT GOT SACKED.  

IT TAKES A LIFE TIME TO BUILD ETHOS –  ALL IT TAKES IS ONE CARELESS SECOND TO BRING THE ETHOS EDIFICE CRUMBLING DOWN.   

YOU CANT HANG ON LIKE A LIMPET FOR TWO FULL YEARS LIKE TENDULKAR.



IN THE CHEMICAL TANKER WORLD AT SEA CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL IS A BIG BRAND

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2010/12/personal-branding-me-inc-capt-ajit.html

Below: ethos gone awry- all know that his Beckham's prick is neither big nor horizontal - GM banana ka kamaal !!



When I was in school I bagged all the first prizes when it came to extempore speaking. 

Here words must be delivered in a river flow of consciousness that is fluent, erudite and articulate, while being unscripted.

I looked upon the audience as a bunch of choots who needed to be reminded to wipe their dripping noses.

I could convince the audience that the sun rises in the west at the beginning of my speech and that the sun rises in the east at the end -  and have the audience lap it all up.



I used to be a mentor at sea.

ETHOS ALONE PREVAILS !


In the Vedic days a mentor was called a GURU.

The modern world knows NOTHING of the ancient art of mentorship.




Lord Shiva as Dakshinamurthy is regarded as the first guru.   Dakshinamurthy , the first Guru who had NO Guru .  

He attuned and imparted vast knowledge to the 4 Kumaras via silence while in the Turiya state.


This is beyond the wildest comprehension of the shallow minded modern white man.




Ethos involves the speaker’s/ writer’s authority on the subject,  sterling character , credibility , reputation ,  inherent ethics,  trust he generates,  integrity , compassion,  fairness,  accountability, superior style , tone,  ethics,  behavior , personal warmth , clarity of mind , knowledge , experience , family history, code of conduct , transparency , selflessness etc .

His reputation precedes him. 

Rothschild cloaked Gandhi in ETHOS before he imported him from South Africa and unleashed him on unsuspecting Indians, to sit on the drivers seat of our freedom struggle.

People must get the feeling that you are considerate and worth listening to.

We tend to believe people whom we respect  and like.

Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker..
The speakers  reputation must exist  independently from his message.

People are willing to listen what Maradona has to say on the subject of soccer- he needs NO introduction or production of bonafides.



The impact of ethos is often called the argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.'
Ethos is the Greek word for “character.” The word “ethic” is derived from ethos.

The Greeks established a sense of ethos by a family's reputation in the community.

Aristotle says, if people are gonna  judge your spoken and/or written ideas by virtue of the appearance of good sense, you'd best polish that quality.

Ethos can be developed by choosing language that is appropriate for the audience and topic .
The layman deos NOT appreciate bombastic language .

The speaker must  sound fair or unbiased,  when introducing his own expertise or pedigree.
Or  he will sound like an asshole , nay prick of the first order.

In the second presidential debate of 2008, Senator John PRICK McCain emphasized his own good
 judgment in this stupid way:

"And I am convinced that my record, going back to my opposition from sending the Marines 
to Lebanon, to supporting our efforts in Kosovo and Bosnia and the first Gulf War, and my 
judgment, I think, is something that ... I'm willing to stand on."


Only CHOOTS dole out self-testimonials this way.


John baby did so because he believed what Aristotle wrote 2300 years ago  “ If you want people 
to believe you, you must first show that you believe yourself”.

Some bullshit funda Aristotle wrote on his own-  most he lifted from ancient Indian scriptures.



Good speakers use powerful gestures, and eye contact and so on to bath themselves in ethos.

Above: The peabrained  TV evangelists who jump around like orangutans look stupid.



Often, a celebrity endorses a product to lend it more credibility— like how Chitpavan  Madhuri Dixit jumped around like  sack of potatoes while lying MAGGI  NOODLES IS HEALTHY FOOD




Ethos is a difficult thing to acquire; sometimes it may take decades to build a strong, credible reputation .

But Jew Rothschild who ruled India gave instant cooked up ethos to Gandhi using his monopolized media.

We have an atheist like Agnivesh who gave himself the title of Swami and wears saffron robes of our ancient gurus to grab ethos.  Mind you, this man created and named Nobel prize winner Kailash Satyarthi.   Both worked for a foreign funded NGO- Mukti Pratishthan Trust – two decades ago.


In a court room you can see that LOGOS rules.

Logos means persuading by the use of reasoning and was Aristotle’s favorite.  Aristotle believed that logos should be the most important of the three persuasive appeals. As a philosopher and a master of logical reasoning, he believed that logos should be the only required persuasive appeal. That is, if you demonstrated logos, you should not need either ethos or pathos.   

However most people who won’t change their minds based on logical argument are willing to do so when their emotions are involved, which is why so many political advertisements use them.

Giving rock hard reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough.


The strategy behind logos is not to just to spit out a fact or number and have that be your argument, but rather to use factual or agreed upon information to provide a foundation for your argument.  Logos gives the audience a tangible comparison and is especially useful because it’s extremely difficult to argue with sound logic.

Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence.  The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal.

Logos appeals to the audience's sense of logic.  Logos deals with reason , proof, supporting evidence,  consistency, facts, figures, case studies, credible arguments, strategy, history , examples, statistics , analogies etc.  

There appeals to cause and consequences.

Having a logos appeal also enhances ethos because information makes the speaker look knowledgeable and prepared to his or her audience.  

Our BENAMI media gives us  inaccurate, falsified, or miscontextualized data , to enact a pathos effect.

Logos focuses first on the argument, using cool logic and rational explanation, as well as demonstrable evidence.

If you argue without evidence, a scientist would dismiss your argument as metaphysical (literally, outside the physical world) and call you a wannable prophet
  
Reason uses rational points that call on accepted truths and proven theories.  Where evidence does not exist, reason may still prevail.  A common tool in reasoning is to link two items together, for example by cause and effect.

Reasoning often uses syllogisms, that include a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion based on the combination of the two premises.

Good writing and speaking skills are among the talents modern employers are looking for.

Logos orients us three ways.   It leads us towards practical problem solving. It prompts decision and action. And, it helps us plan for the future with vision and strategy.
  
Aristotle said “the most important thing by far is to have a command of metaphor”.  He added: “For this is the only one that cannot be learned from anyone else, and is a sign of natural genius, as to be good at metaphor is to perceive resemblances. It gives clearness charm and distinction to style.”

Metaphors say things in terms of something else.  They create associations and links between things.. The best metaphors awaken the senses by evoking images and emotions in the audience. They define things in fresh new ways.  They create a mini-story in a sentence. They are remembered long after facts are forgotten.

They are sticky.  Like long after  the music is forgotten the melody lingers.  Metaphor has transformational power by creating a bridge between previously unconnected things.

Aristotle understood: “Metaphor is judged not only by its fit to the thing signified, but also by its sound or by the appeal it makes to the eye or some other sense.”



Metaphors work partly because they offer simplifications of the complex world. A metaphor creates an appealing image or picture of an often far more complicated reality.

Metaphor heightens drama and evokes imagery.
  


Aristotle’s insight that: “A fool tells me his reasons. The wise man persuades me with my own”.. 

Different people are persuaded by different types of appeals. Some people are influenced most by values, stories and metaphors; others just want you to be factual, brief and to the point. 

Some revel in the details and want to know how your proposal is going to work; and still others feel empowered by being part of a social group sharing the experience of working and being together. 

Different things impact on different people.

Some people are ‘thinkers’ while others are ‘feelers’. Thinkers are more persuaded by rational arguments based on logic and analysis. Feelers are more persuaded by values-based arguments.

Skilled communicators can reach out to all personality types.  Reason can be built into an argument through storytelling.   

Instant story telling and deriving morals is a priceless logos method - very few people can do this.  


At sea I held my crew's interest by narrating juicy stories with sex, shit and fart embedded in the story- and theloved me for it..



In the post below you can substitute caustic with SHIT.

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.in/2011/01/caustic-humor-on-chemical-tankers-capt.html

“Rhetoric is the art of ruling the minds of men.” – Plato

Aristotle opens the rhetoric maintaining that: “rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic”

Aristotle defines dialectic as “a logical method of debating issues of general interest, starting from widely accepted propositions (endoxa)” (74) and to be able to hold up an argument while saying nothing self-contradictory.

Though based upon endoxa (a sophistic device), dialectic’s true strength derives from its ability to view both sides of an argument – and then to use, in its way, endoxa to generate conclusions based on an audience’s emotions.  Dialectic tests old ideas while creating new ones.
  
Rhetoric and dialectic both begin with endoxa; however, rhetoric uses a different set of proofs than does dialectic.  These proofs lie in character (ethos) and emotions (pathos) – whilke dialectic can be seen as socially constructed logic (logos). 


Rhetoric and dialectic combined comprise Aristotle’s tripartite rhetorical tream of ethos, pathos, and logos.


WHERE ETHOS AND LOGOS IS ZILCH , CROOKS DO HEGLIAN DIALECTIC.






A WARNING :

NOTHING WORKS UNLESS THE “TIMING” IS PERFECT !

Maggi is NOT gonna sing the praises of their instant noodles for a while.



DO NOT OFFER ANYBODY A CHICKEN BIRIYANI AFTER HE HAS JUST FED HIS FACE WITH TWO MUTTON BIRIYANIS.

Very few people know how to use time to their advantage.




Humans are emotional creatures as well as thinking ones.

"The heart has hajaar reasons that the mind knows not of."   

Sometimes, when all the speakers reputation fails, his arguments fall short, and all his words echo like empty vessels , he must make the audience feel.

Pathos appeals to the audience's sense of emotions, values, imagination, beliefs, empathy, pity, pain etc ,

Pathos covers all sorts of emotions: jokes to make an audience laugh, scorn to make them mock a stupidity, anger at an injustice to enrage , sorrow to make them feel regret, enigmas/ paradoxes to arouse curiosity, and soothing words to relax readers or provide comfort 



Pathos works best with techniques like narration, description, juxtaposition, and artful repetition.  ( Brutus is a honorable man )

Pathos can put hooks on to your nostrils and drag you to Chinatown.

Pathos can trigger  powerful conclusions that wrap up an argument.


Pathos ensures that readers are interested and involved in the argument; it appeals to the human love of storytelling and detail.

The secret is not to tell the reader what to feel, but to meander your rhetoric in such a deliberate way as to conjure that emotion.  Telling the reader, "You should be angry about so and so ” is never as effective as providing a detailed example that would make any feeling human upset.


If your pathos delivery fails with an intelligent audience god save you.

HAMAARA DESH MEIN AAJ GANDHI  NAHI  HAI
HAMAARA DESH MEIN AAJ NEHRU  NAHI  HAI

AAJ KAL HAMAARA TABIYAT BHI
COUGH COUGH
KUCH KHARAAB HAI
COUGH COUGH



Pathos must aim to infuse spirit . It must be used ethically, rather than painting falthu emotion over weak arguments too frail to stand up on the merits of their reason alone. 



Pathos must emanate from the depths of the soul, not from the five superficial senses. Pathos must go way beyond commonplace pity or sympathy; it must transcend to humanity level-  rather it must resonate .

Empathy is the faculty to resonate with the feelings of others.

The master of Pathos can cause his audience to leave the meeting with the resonance of what they have felt and what they thought in reaction to that. 

He can ignite minds elpronto like a forest fire--





- or he can germinate a thought in a mind , the slow way he wants it to - where a speck of sand can become a pearl over time.


Pathos can be misused.
Mother Teresa generated maximum pathos in recent times.

The wise ones have seen through her hollow pathos.



Not all munificent acts have pure intentions.  

If we help others with ulterior motives, that is not an act of kindness at all but selfishness with malicious intent.  . There is a great difference between the noble intention to help and doing the act of benevolence with selfish motive.

The intention in human pathos is indeed immaculate - it is the genesis of moral consciousness. It is not just a mere feeling of  pity;  it is a beautiful and profound sensation that springs from an incomplete being whose completion is to soak in the joys and sorrows of other beings.  

Human pathos is authentic and rationally felt by any human through a compassionate encounter with other human without ulterior motive.

The shared sensation,, in human pathos is the very essence of our humanity; it reconciles our being with other beings toward a shared hope and vision .  


A pedophile give a small child a lollipop to suck on before he forces/ cons the innocent child to suck on something else. 

A saint who gives shelter to a vulnerable man with ulterior motive is worse that this pedophile.

One does not have to be religious, cultured,  educated or a "saint" to be capable of human pathos or compassion.

Getting back-
Emotion, or "pathos," is a rhetorical device that can be used in an argument to draw the audience in and to help it connect with the argument. 


As Aristotle wrote , pathos works in conjunction with logos (logic) and ethos (credibility) to help form a solid argument..  Used correctly with proper timing , pathos can make a bland argument come alive for the audience. 

Pathos offers a way for the audience to relate to the subject through commonly held emotions. 

If pathos is used in a brained manner , it will only serve to muddy the argumentative waters-  like a certain demented orangutan on primetime TV.

And by experiencing this emotion, the reader begins to develop his or her own emotional response: sympathy, horror, and anger. The student has helped the reader connect to his argument through the effective use of pathos.

Pathos must evoke an emotional response from a reader/ audience by appealing to empathy, fear, humor, or some other human emotion.


When a writer employs a narrative or anecdote, he or she is usually attempting to connect with the reader emotionally. Pathos humanizes the problem and draws on readers' empathy. 

Songs ( even music ) and pictures produce emotional responses.



An appeal to pathos must cause the audience to respond imagine emotionally and identify with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels.  In this sense, pathos evokes a meaning implicit in the verb 'to suffer'--to feel pain imaginatively.... through narrative or story, which can turn the abstractions of logic into something palpable and present. 

The values, beliefs, and understandings of the writer are implicit in the story and conveyed imaginatively to the reader.

Pathos forces the audience to decision or action.

NO POINT IN WINKING AT A GIRL IN THE  DARK


Masters of pathos know that this is the strongest of all appeals—harnessing the power of emotion to sway the mind.

On my ship when I told my crew to jump, they asked only "how high"-    never "why", or "what for"- but that was ethos.


While using pathos , even a dimwit knows that the audience loves to be flattered rather than be insulted.   

But if your LOGOS is super strong , you can insult the audience ( tell them to fuck themselves ) and get more readership -  such is the paradox of LOGOS.


The question to ask is -  does  the audience gain from being insulted and shat on their collective 
faces hour after hour.

Such is the power of “truth exhuming” which this blog site does.


Generally, appeals to our sense of identity and self interest exploit common biases;  we naturally bend in the direction of what is advantageous to us, what serves our interests or the interests of any group we believe ourselves a part of..

BR Ambedkar saw everything through the DALIT prism.




In the “Rhetoric”, Aristotle advises writers at length how to create anger toward some ideal circumstance and how also to create a sense of calm in readers.  He also explains principles of friendship and enmity as shared pleasure and pain.  


He discusses how to create in readers a sense of fear and shame and shamelessness and kindness and unkindness and pity and indignation and envy and indignation and emulation. 




It is very easy to create a sense of indignation if you know the basics of human psychology.


Below: In Kerala the Commie Mallus have discarded Lenin and Marx ( knowing that they are Rothschild's Jews )-- and have now jumped into the Che Guevara bandwagon - unlike the Bongs.



Below: And how fast should our army ghumao the fuckin' charkha when the Chinese invade India ,  and how much lobe nay love should we give them ?  

Fellow Gujju Narendra Modi spAke : Gandhiji ne charkha ghumaake humko aazadi dilwaaya !

that was mE indignation

Indian main stream media and TV anchors have been trying to create waves with Lalitgate for 3 weeks.

All of these pea brained presstitutes and their prime time perception molders have–

SHIT FOR ETHOS

SHIT FOR LOGOS

and

SHIT FOR PATHOS .


TEEEEEE  HEEEEE !!!




The persuasive appeal of pathos is an appeal to an audience's sense of identity, their self-interest, their emotions.  When a speake wants a listener to evaluate something negatively, he may try to arouse the listener's s anger.


In the Rhetoric, Aristotle advises writers at length how to create anger toward some ideal circumstance and how also to create a sense of calm in readers. He also explains principles of friendship and enmity as shared pleasure and pain. 

He discusses how to create in readers a sense of fear and shame and shamelessness and kindness and unkindness and pity and indignation and envy and indignation and emulation. 

Then he starts all over and shows how to create such feelings toward ideas in various types of human character' of "people" of virtue and vice; those of youth, prime of life, and old age; and those of good fortune and those of bad fortune."



Martin Luther King Jr made a CHOOT out of his fellow blacks with PATHOS.

"I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed."

(I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th, 1963.)



Here is an appeal to Pathos--
"Better men than us have fought and died to preserve this great nation.  Now is our turn to return the favor.   For God and country, gentlemen!"


 Aristotle says that if we want to make an audience angry we need to know three things: 1) the state of mind of angry people, 2) who the people are that this audience usually gets angry at, and 3) on what grounds this audience gets angry at those people. 



The aim of pathos is to reduce the audience’s ability to judge- and before this the speaker must arouse the interest of the audience.

Pathos can play on fear
Pathos can play on worry
Pathos can play on sadness
Pathos can play on nostalgia
Pathos can play on a sense of adventure
Pathos can play on desires
Pathos can play on horror
Pathos can play on disgust
Pathos can play on affection
Pathos can play on humor
etc
Pathos is a Greek word meaning 'suffering' or 'experience,' s, utilizing story, sensory-based details and vivid language. Pathos appeals bring human experience into the argument.


While logos may touch the mind, pathos touches the heart.  Ethos touches the spirit.


Emotions start and finish arguments. Emotions drive actions. Emotions spark wars and conflict.. Emotional hungers drive us to satisfy our needs and wants. 



Emotions are the essence of how we feel about ourselves and our lives. Emotions often tip us to act one way or another.




Emotional appeals, expressive language, telling stories, description, are all powerful tools in helping others experience what you or someone else has experienced.   Descriptive, graphic narrative can effectively be used to persuade an audience to your point of view.  


However, pathos without reason can lead a reader to think with his heart and not his head.




People just love to hear a good story and cannot resist getting carried away by it. It is in precisely this moment that you have the possibility to introduce a suggestion in your speech as, being enthralled by the story line, rational defenses are more easily bypassed.



People can sometimes be convinced by arguments that tug on their heart strings.



 Pathos is usually rendered in the form of a narrative or personal anecdote to bring gravity to a situation or make the audience relate to the argument in a personal way.




The Rhetoric was developed by Aristotle during two periods when he was in Athens, the first, from 367 to 347 BC (when he was seconded to Plato in the Academy), and the second, from 335 to 322 BC (when he was running his own school, the Lyceum)


The Rhetoric consists of three books. Book I offers a general overview, presenting the purposes of rhetoric and a working definition; it also offers a detailed discussion of the major contexts and types of rhetoric. 

Book II discusses in detail the three means of persuasion that an orator must rely on: those grounded in credibility (ethos), in the emotions and psychology of the audience (pathos), and in patterns of reasoning (logos). 

Book III introduces the elements of style (word choice, metaphor, and sentence structure) and arrangement (organization). Some attention is paid to delivery, but generally the reader is referred to the Poetics for more information in that area.[19]

Many chapters in Book I of Aristotle's Rhetoric cover the various typical deliberative arguments in Athenian culture.

Chapter One
Aristotle first defines rhetoric as the counterpart (antistrophos) of dialectic (Bk. 1:1:1-2). He explains the similarities between the two but fails to comment on the differences. Here he introduces the term enthymeme (Bk. 1:1:3).

Chapter Two
Aristotle's famous definition of rhetoric is viewed as the ability in any particular case to see the available means of persuasion. He defines pisteis as atechnic (inartistic) and entechnic (artistic). Of the pisteis provided through speech there are three parts: ethos, pathos, and logos. He introduces paradigms and syllogisms as means of persuasion.

Chapter Three
Introduces the three genres of rhetoric: deliberative, forensic, and epideictic rhetoric. Here he also touches on the “ends" the orators of each of these genres hope to reach with their persuasions – which are discussed in further detail in later chapters (Bk. 1:3:5-7). Aristotle introduces these three genres by saying, "The kinds of rhetoric are three in number, corresponding to the three kinds of hearers." [20][21]

Chapter Four
Aristotle discusses the types of political topics of deliberative rhetoric. The five most common are finance, war and peace, national defense, imports and exports, and the framing of laws.

Chapter Five
Aristotle discusses the different ethical topics of deliberative rhetoric. Aristotle identifies the goal of human action with “happiness" and describes the many factors contributing to it (Bk. 1:5:5-18).

Chapter Six
This is a continuation of Chapter Five, explaining in greater detail the stoikhea (elements) of the “good" described in the previous chapter.

Chapter Seven
Introduces the term koinon[disambiguation needed] of degree. Discusses the 'ends' of deliberative rhetoric in relation to the greater good or more advantageous.

Chapter Eight
Aristotle defines and discusses the four forms of politeia (constitution) useful in deliberative rhetoric: democracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, and monarchy.


Chapter Nine
This chapter discusses the virtues and concepts of to kalon (the honorable) included in epideictic rhetoric. Aristotle describes what makes certain topics appropriate or worthy for praise or blame. He also states that it is important to highlight certain traits of the subject of praise.

Chapter Ten
Discusses what syllogisms should be derived from kategoria (accusations) and apologia (defenses) for judicial rhetoric. Also introduces the wrongdoing, which is useful for judicial rhetoric.

Chapter Eleven
This chapter discusses the many different types of hedone (pleasure) useful for judicial rhetoric. Aristotle states these as the reasons for people doing wrong.

Chapter Twelve
This chapter, also about judicial rhetoric, discusses people's dispositions of mind and whom people wrong from the hedone discussed in the previous chapter. Aristotle emphasizes the importance of willingness, or intentions, of wrongdoings.

Chapter Thirteen
Aristotle classifies all acts that are just and unjust defined in judicial rhetoric. He also distinguishes what kinds of actions are fair and unfair with being just.

Chapter Fourteen
This chapter parallels the koinon described in Chapter Seven. Aristotle is clarifying the magnitude in relation to questions of “wrongdoing" meant for judicial rhetoric.

Chapter Fifteen
Aristotle summarises the arguments available to a speaker in dealing with evidence that supports or weakens a case. These atechnic pisteis contain laws, witnesses, contracts, tortures, and oaths.
Overview of Book II[edit]

Book II of Aristotle’s Rhetoric generally concentrates on ethos and pathos, and as noted by Aristotle, both affect judgment. Specifically, Aristotle refers to the effect of ethos and pathos on an audience since a speaker needs to exhibit these modes of persuasion before that audience.

Chapter 1: Introduction

In Chapter 1, Aristotle notes that emotions cause men to change their opinion in regard to their judgments. As such, emotions have specific causes and effects (Book 2.1.2-3). Thus, a speaker can employ his understanding as a stimulus for the sought emotion from an audience. However, Aristotle states that along with pathos, the speaker must also exhibit ethos, which for Aristotle encompasses wisdom (phronesis), virtue (arete), and good will (eunoia) (Book 2.1.5-9).

Chapters 2-11: Efficacious Emotions for Speakers in All Genres of Rhetoric

Chapters 2-11 explore those emotions useful to a rhetorical speaker. Aristotle provides an account on how to arouse these emotions in an audience so that a speaker might be able to produce the desired action successfully (Book 2.2.27). 

Aristotle arranges the discussion of the emotions in opposing pairs, such as anger and calmness or friendliness and enmity. For each emotion, Aristotle discusses the person’s state of mind, against whom one directs the emotion, and for what reasons (Book 2.1.9). It is pertinent to understand all the components in order to stimulate a certain emotion within another person. 

For example, to Aristotle, anger results from the feeling of belittlement (Book 2.2.3-4). Those who become angry are in a state of distress due to a foiling of their desires (Book 2.2.9). The angry direct their emotion towards those who insult the latter or that which the latter values. These insults are the reasoning behind the anger (Book 2.2.12-27). 

In this way, Aristotle proceeds to define each emotion, assess the state of mind for those experiencing the emotion, determine to whom people direct the emotion, and reveal their reasoning behind the emotion. The significance of Aristotle’s analysis stems from his idea that emotions have logical grounding and material sources.

Chapters 12-17: Ethos: Adapting the Character of the Speech to the Character of the Audience

Book III of Aristotle’s Rhetoric is often overshadowed by the first two books. While Books I and II are more systematic and address ethos, logos, and pathos, Book III is often considered a conglomeration of Greek stylistic devices on rhetoric. However, Book III contains informative material on lexis (style) which refers to the “way of saying" (in Chapters 1-12) and taxis, which refers to the arrangement of words (in Chapters 13-19).


Chapters 1–12: Style (lexis)
Chapter 1
Summarizes Aristotle's Book I and Book II and introduces the term hypokrisis (pronuntiatio). Aristotle argues that voice should be used to most accurately represent the given situation as exemplified by poets (Bk. 3 1:3-4).

Chapter 2
Highlights arête, which is defined as virtue or excellence. When applied to rhetoric, arête means natural rather than forced or artificial (Bk. 3 2:1-4). Metaphors are also addressed as a skill that cannot be taught and should bestow “verbal beauty" (Bk. 3 2:6-13).

Chapter 3
Deals with "frigid" language. This occurs when one uses elaborate double words, archaic, and rare words, added descriptive words or phrases, and inappropriate metaphors (Bk. 3 3:1-4).

Chapter 4
Discusses another figurative part of speech, the simile (also known as an eikon). Similes are only occasionally useful in speech due to their poetic nature and similarity to metaphor.

Chapter 5
Addresses how to speak properly by using connectives, calling things by their specific name, avoiding terms with ambiguous meanings, observing the gender of nouns, and correctly using singular and plural words (Bk. 3 5:1-6).

Chapter 6
Gives practical advice on how to amplify language by using Onkos (expansiveness) and syntomia (conciseness). Not using the term circle, but giving its definition, would exemplify onkos, and using the word as the definition would exemplify syntomia (Bk.3 5:1-3).

Chapter 7
Aristotle expands on the use of appropriate style in addressing the subject. "Lexis will be appropriate if it expresses emotion and character and is proportional to the subject matter". Aristotle stresses emotion, credibility, genus (like age), and moral state as important considerations (Bk. 3 7:1-6).

Chapter 8
Rhythm should be incorporated into prose to make it well "rhythmed" but not to the extent of a poem (Bk.3 8:3-7).

Chapter 9
Looks at periodic style and how it should be seen as a rhythmical unit and used to complete a thought to help understand meaning (Bk.3 9:3-4).

Chapter 10
Aristotle further highlights the metaphor and addresses how it brings about learning and enables visualization (Bk. 3 10:1-6).

Chapter 11
Explains why devices of style can defamiliarize language. Aristotle warns that it is inappropriate to speak in hyperbole (Bk. 3 11:15).

Chapter 12
The three genres of oral and written language are deliberative, judicial, and epideictic, all of which are written by logographoi (speech writers) who are each skilled at different types of speeches. This transitions into the next section of chapters on taxis.

Chapters 13–19: Taxis
Chapter 13
Covers the necessary parts of a speech which include the prosthesis (which is the statement of the proposition) and then the pistis (which is the proof of the statement), along with the prooemium (introduction) and epilogue (Bk.3 13:1-4).

Chapter 14
Discusses the prooemiun (introduction), which demonstrates how the introduction should be used in both epideictic and judicial speeches. Both have the main goal of signaling the end of the speech (Bk. 3 14:1-11).

Chapter 15
Handles prejudicial attacks according to Aristotle which later on became part of Stasis (argumentation theory) which is "determining the question at issue in a trial".

Chapter 16
Diēgēsis or narration is discussed and demonstrates how one must work through an argument by using logos. Narration differs in epideictic, judicial, and deliberative narratives.

Chapter 17
Looks at the pistis or the proof in an oration, and how it varies in each type of speech.

Chapter 18
Erotēsis, also known as interrogation referred to asking and demanding responses in trials during Aristotle's time. It is seen as, "most opportune when an opponent has said one thing and when if the right question is asked, an absurdity results" (Bk. 3 19:1).

Chapter 19
Aristotle's final chapter in Book III discusses epilogues, which are the conclusion of speeches and must include four things: "disposing the hearer favorably toward the speaker and unfavorably to the opponent, amplifying and minimizing, moving the hearer into emotional reactions, and giving reminder of the speech's main points" (Bk. 3 19:1-4).
















TO BE CONTINUED-





CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
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